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hypertension medications impact on cisgender gay men and other men who have sex with men (MSM) on a global scaleThe hypertension medications lasix is thought to lasix uk buy disproportionately threaten the health of underserved and underinvestigated populations. To investigate the impact of hypertension medications transmission mitigation measures on MSM, an international team did a cross-sectional study that included lasix uk buy 2732 MSM from 103 countries who responded to a questionnaire distributed through a gay social networking app. Findings suggest that the spread of hypertension medications, and the global response to contain it, has variably disrupted economic, mental health, general health and clinical services among MSM populations, with a greater impact on those living with HIV, racial/ethnic minorities, immigrants, sex workers and socioeconomically disadvantaged groups.

As hypertension medications may deepen health disparities and social inequalities, continued lasix uk buy monitoring and creative strategies are needed to mitigate reduction in access to services for MSM with intersecting vulnerabilities.Santos GM, Ackerman B, Rao A, et al. Economic, mental health, HIV prevention and HIV treatment impacts of hypertension medications and the hypertension medications response on a global sample of cisgender gay men and other men who have sex with men. AIDS Beha lasix uk buy 2020.

11:1–11.https://doi.org/10.1007/s10461-020-02969-0Influence of sexual positioning on syphilis lasix uk buy acquisition and its stage at diagnosisIn a retrospective study of MSM in Melbourne, Australia, researchers examined the association between sexual positioning and a diagnosis of primary (n=338) or secondary (n=221) syphilis. Of 247 penile chancres, 244 (98.7%) occurred in MSM who reported versatile or exclusive top sexual positioning. Of 77 anal chancres, 75 lasix uk buy (97.4%) occurred in MSM who reported versatile or exclusive bottom sexual positioning.

MSM who practised receptive anal sex were more likely to present with secondary rather than primary syphilis (OR 3.90. P<0.001, adjusted for age, HIV status and lasix uk buy condom use). This suggests that because anorectal chancres are less noticeable, they are less likely to prompt evaluation.

Findings highlight the need for improved screening of MSM who report receptive anal sex to ensure early syphilis detection lasix uk buy and treatment.Cornelisse VJ, Chow EPF, Latimer RL, et al. Getting to the bottom of it lasix uk buy. Sexual positioning and stage of syphilis at diagnosis, and implications for syphilis screening.

Clin Infect lasix uk buy Dis 2020;71(2):318–322. Https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciz802A novel rapid, point-of-care test (POCT) for confirmatory testing of active syphilis The re-emergence of syphilis is a global public health concern especially in resource-limited settings. Current POCTs detect Treponema pallidum (TP) total antibodies but do not distinguish between active lasix uk buy and past/treated syphilis, resulting in potential overtreatment and contributing to shortages of penicillin.

A new, investigational POCT based on the detection of TP-IgA was evaluated against standard laboratory-based serological tests in 458 stored plasma samples from China and 503 venous blood samples from South Africa. Sensitivity and specificity of TP-IgA POCT lasix uk buy for identifying active syphilis were 96.1% (95% CI. 91.7% to 98.5%) and 84.7% (95% CI lasix uk buy.

80.1% to 88.6%) in Chinese samples, and 100% (95% CI. 59% to 100%) lasix uk buy and 99.4% (95% CI. 98.2% to 99.9%) in South African samples, respectively.

These preliminary lasix uk buy findings suggest that this TP-IgA-based POCT meets the WHO target product profile for confirmatory diagnosis of active syphilis.Pham MD, Wise A, Garcia ML, et al. Improving the coverage and accuracy of syphilis testing. The development of a novel rapid, point-of-care test for confirmatory testing of active syphilis and its early evaluation in China and South Africa lasix uk buy.

EClinicalMedicine 2020;24:100440 lasix uk buy. Https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eclinm.2020.100440Early antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation and wide coverage reduces population-level HIV s in FranceIn 2013, France implemented the early initiation of ART irrespective of CD4 counts to fast-track progress toward UNAIDS (Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS) 90-90-90 goals (90% of people with HIV diagnosed, 90% on ART, 90% virologically suppressed).1 An analysis of 61 822 HIV-diagnosed people within the national Dat’AIDS prospective cohort study shows that 91.9% of HIV-diagnosed people were receiving ART by 2014 and 90.5% were virologically suppressed by 2013. This was accompanied by a lasix uk buy 36% and 25% decrease in the number of primary (diagnosed with symptoms of acute HIV) and recent HIV (diagnosed with CD4 cell count ≥500/mm3), respectively, between 2013 and 2017.

These findings on two of three goals support the effectiveness of ‘Treatment as Prevention’ in dramatically reducing HIV incidence at the population level.Le Guillou A, Pugliese P, Raffi F, Cabie A, Cuzin L, Katlama C, et al. Reaching the lasix uk buy second and third joint United Nations Programme on Human Immunodeficiency lasix (HIV)/AIDS 90-90-90 targets is accompanied by a dramatic reduction in primary HIV and in recent HIV s in a large French nationwide HIV cohort. Clinical Infectious Diseases 2019;71(2):293–300.

Https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciz800No evidence of an association between human papillomalasix (HPV) vaccination and infertilityDespite well-established lasix uk buy evidence of effectiveness and safety, HPV treatment uptake remains below target in many countries, often due to safety concerns. To evaluate claims that HPV vaccination increases lasix uk buy female infertility, researchers analysed 2013–2016 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data from 1114 US women aged 20 to 33 years—those young enough to have been offered HPV treatments and old enough to have been asked about infertility. The 8.1% of women who self-reported infertility were neither more nor less likely to have received an HPV treatment.

Vaccinated women who had ever lasix uk buy been married were less likely to report infertility. Findings should engender confidence among healthcare providers, whose recommendation is a key factor in patients’ acceptance of HPV vaccination.Schmuhl N, Mooney KE, Zhang X, Cooney LG, Conway JH, and LoCont NK. No association lasix uk buy between HPV vaccination and infertility in U.S.

Females 18–33 years old. treatment 2020;38(24):4038–4043 lasix uk buy. Https://doi.org/10.1016/j.treatment.2020.03.035A pay-it-forward approach to improve uptake of gonorrhoea and chlamydia testingDespite WHO recommendations that MSM receive gonorrhoea and lasix uk buy chlamydia testing, affordability remains a barrier in many countries.

In a randomised trial, researchers tested three incentivising strategies, randomising 301 MSM in MSM-run community-based organisations in Guangzhou and Beijing, China. Gonorrhoea and chlamydia test uptake was 56% lasix uk buy in the pay-it-forward arm (free testing and an invitation to donate to a future person’s test), 46% in a pay-what-you-want arm and 18% in the standard-cost arm (¥150, €1.2). The estimated difference in test uptake between pay-it-forward and standard cost was 38.4% (95% CI lower bound 28.4%).

Almost 95% of MSM in the pay-it-forward arm donated to testing for future participants lasix uk buy. The pay-it-forward strategy significantly increased gonorrhoea and chlamydia testing uptake in China and has potential to drive testing in other settings.Yang F, Zhang TP, Tang W, Ong JJ, Alexander M, Forastiere L, Kumar N, Li KT, Zou F, Yang L, Mi G, Wang Y, Huang W, Lee A, Zhu W, Luo D, Vickerman P, Wu D, Yang B, Christakis NA, Tucker JD. Pay-it-forward gonorrhoea and chlamydia testing among lasix uk buy men who have sex with men in China.

A randomised controlled trial lasix uk buy. Lancet Infect Dis 2020;20(8)976-982. Https://doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30172-9The Shape of Training review1 and the Future Hospital Commission2 identified the need for a reform of postgraduate lasix uk buy medical training in the UK for doctors to adapt to changing population and service needs.

The focus of postgraduate training needed to move from a ‘time-served’ approach to a competency-based one with doctors developing high-level learning outcomes, capabilities in practice (CiPs). The General Medical Council (GMC) also recommended that all revised curricula from 2020 should include generic professional capabilities (GPCs), including communication, leadership, multidisciplinary teamwork and patient safety, which are crucial to safe and effective patient care.Genitourinary medicine (GUM), along with many other physicianly specialities, will adopt a dual training model from August 2022, leading to accreditation in both lasix uk buy GUM and general internal medicine (GIM). The GUM curriculum will continue to offer training in the diagnosis, investigation and management of sexually transmitted s and related conditions, contraception, HIV inpatient and outpatient care, management of ….

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Take the 10-Day Fresh Start ChallengeStudies show lasix online canadian pharmacy that http://www.ec-griesheim-pres-molsheim.ac-strasbourg.fr/ecole-et-cinema/ moments of disruption offer a unique opportunity to set and achieve new goals. Credit...Nathalie LeesPublished May 11, 2021Updated May 13, 2021Leer en españolIf there was ever a perfect time to make a life change, this is it.Behavioral scientists have long known that times of disruption and transition also create new opportunities for growth and change. Disruption can come in many forms, and it happens when life knocks us out of our normal routines. It can be moving to a new city, starting a new job, getting married lasix online canadian pharmacy or divorced or having a child.

And for many of us, there’s never been a bigger life disruption than the lasix, which changed how we work, eat, sleep and exercise, and even how we connect with friends and family.“I think this fresh start is really a big opportunity,” said Katy Milkman, a professor at the Wharton School and author of the new book “How to Change. The Science of Getting From Where You Are to Where You Want to Be. €œI don’t know when we’ll have another one lasix online canadian pharmacy like it. We have this blank slate to work on.

Everything is on the table to start fresh.”Much of Dr. Milkman’s research has focused on lasix online canadian pharmacy the science of new beginnings, which she calls “the fresh start effect.” Dr. Milkman and her colleagues have found that we’re most inclined to make meaningful changes around “temporal landmarks” — those points in time that we naturally associate with a new beginning. New Year’s Day is the most obvious temporal landmark in our lives, but birthdays, the start of spring, the start of a new school year, even the beginning of the week or the first of the month are all temporal landmarks that create psychological opportunities for change.In one study, Dr.

Milkman found that students were most likely to visit the gym around the start lasix online canadian pharmacy of the week, the first of the month, following birthdays or after school breaks. Another study found that “fresh start language” helped people kick-start their goals. In that study, people were far more likely to start a new goal on a day labeled “the first day of spring” compared to an unremarkable day labeled “the third Thursday in March.” (It was the exact same day, just labeled differently.)Another study found that when people were advised to start saving money in a few months, they were less likely to do so than a group of people told to start saving around their birthday that was also a few months away. The birthday group saved 20 to 30 percent more money.Although the lasix lasix online canadian pharmacy is far from over, for many people, the lifting of restrictions and getting vaccinated means planning vacations and returning to more-normal work and school routines.

It’s exactly the kind of psychological new beginning that could prompt the fresh start effect, said Dr. Milkman.“We have this opportunity with this blank slate to change our health habits and be very conscientious about our day,” said Dr. Milkman. €œWhat is our lunch routine going to look like?.

What is our exercise routine?. There’s an opportunity to rethink. What do we want a work day to look like?. € Join us for Well’s Fresh Start Challenge!.

Starting Monday May 17 we’ll text you daily tips for mindful living. To sign up, just text “Hi” (or any word) to 917-809-4995 for a link to join. (Message and data rates may apply.). .outer-wrapper { display.

10px. Border-top. 1px solid rgb(226, 226, 226). Padding-top.

1px solid rgb(226, 226, 226). Margin-bottom. -10px. } .blurb { font-family.

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19px. } } .blurb a { text-decoration. Underline. } a:hover { color.

#f04e23;} a:visited { color. #808080;}It’s Not Too Late to Reset.As the lasix recedes, some people are worried that the past year of lockdowns, restrictions and time at home was a missed opportunity. Leslie Scott, a nonprofit event organizer in Eugene, Ore., said she feels that she just muddled through a stressful year, rather than using the time to make meaningful life changes.“I sometimes wonder if I squandered this gift of time,” said Ms. Scott, who is an organizer of the Oregon Truffle Festival.

€œI have all this anxiety that we’re just going to go back to what people think of as normal. As we come out of our cocoons, am I emerging from something and moving toward something new?. Or am I just stuck?. €While some people did develop healthy new habits during lasix lockdowns, it’s http://www.silvialanga.com/en/proyectos/teatre-auditori-de-granollers/ not too late if you spent your lasix days just getting by.

The good news is that the end of the lasix is probably a more opportune time for meaningful change than when you were experiencing the heightened anxiety of lockdowns.“hypertension medications was an awful time for many of us,” said Laurie Santos, a psychology professor at Yale who teaches a popular online course called “The Science of Well-Being.” “There’s lots of evidence for what’s called post-traumatic growth — that we can come out stronger and with a bit more meaning in our lives after going through negative events. I think we can all harness this awful lasix time as a time to get some post-traumatic growth in our own lives.”So What’s Your Next Chapter?. One of the biggest obstacles to change has always been the fact that we tend to have established routines that are hard to break. But the lasix shattered many people’s routines, setting us up for a reset, Dr.

Santos said.“We’ve all just changed our routines so much,” she said. €œI think many of us have realized during the lasix that some of the things we were doing before hypertension medications weren’t the kind of things that were leading to flourishing in our lives. I think many of us were realizing that aspects of our work and family life and even our relationships probably need to change if we want to be happier.”One reason fresh starts can be so effective is that humans tend to think about the passage of time in chapters or episodes, rather than on a continuum, Dr. Milkman said.

As a result, we tend to think of the past in terms of unique periods, such as our high school years, the college years, the years we lived in a particular town or worked at a certain job. Going forward, we’re likely to look back on the lasix year as a similarly unique chapter of our lives.“We have chapter breaks, as if life is a novel — that is the way we mark time,” said Dr. Milkman. €œThat has implications for the psychology of fresh starts, because these moments that open a new chapter give us a sense of a new beginning.

It’s easier to attribute any failings to ‘the old me.’ You feel like you can achieve more now, because we’re in a new chapter.”Take the Fresh Start Challenge!. While the start of a new chapter is a great time for change, the pages will turn quickly. Now that we’re emerging from the restrictions of lasix life, social scientists say it’s an ideal time to start thinking about what you’ve learned in the past year. What are the new habits you want to keep, and what parts of your prelasix life do you want to change?.

€œIt’s time to rethink your priorities,” said Dr. Milkman, who outlines more detailed steps for change in her new book. €œWe have to ask ourselves, ‘How am I going to schedule my time?. €™ We have a limited window to be deliberate about it, because pretty quickly, we’ll have a new pattern established, and we probably won’t rethink it again for a while.”A good first step is to take our 10-Day Fresh Start Challenge.

Sign up, and starting Monday, May 17, we’ll send one or two messages a day to prompt moments of mindful reflection, build stronger connections and take small steps toward building healthy new habits. You can text us, too!. The challenge will include 10 daily challenges, with a break over the weekend.To sign up, just text “Hi” or any word to 917-809-4995 for a link to join. (If you’re on your phone now, tap here to send the text.

Message and data rates may apply.) If you prefer not to text or live outside the United States, you can follow along on the website or app. Just bookmark this page and join us on May 17 for the first challenge.“I think a lot of us have realized how fragile some of the things were that gave us joy before, from going to the grocery store, to going out to a restaurant with friends, going to a movie, giving your mom a hug whenever you’d like,” said Dr. Santos. €œMy hope is that we’ll emerge from this lasix with a bit more appreciation for the little things in life.”AdvertisementContinue reading the main story#masthead-section-label, #masthead-bar-one { display.

None }The hypertension OutbreakLatest UpdatesMaps and CasesState Reopening Trackertreatment RolloutNew Mask Guidancetreatments and ChildrenAdvertisementContinue reading the main storySupported byContinue reading the main storyThey’re Not Anti-treatment, but These Parents Are Hesitant About the hypertension medications ShotMany of them are vaccinated, but when it comes to their kids, the unknowns give them pause.Published May 12, 2021Updated May 13, 2021Alejandra Gerardo, 9, looked up at her mother as she received her first shot of the Pfizer treatment during a clinical trial for children at Duke Health in Durham, N.C.Credit...Associated PressOn May 4, Dr. Hina Talib, who goes by the handle @teenhealthdoc on Instagram, asked the parents among her 33,000 followers if they were hesitant to get the hypertension treatment for their 12- to 15-year-olds, and if so, why. Dr. Talib, who is a physician in the adolescent medicine division at Children’s Hospital at Montefiore in New York, was surprised to get 600 messages filled with questions and concerns.More often than not, Dr.

Talib said, the parents had already had the hypertension medications treatment themselves, and would preface their message with. €œI’m not an anti-vaxxer or an anti-masker. I’m just worried.” According to recently released polls, parents across the country share those concerns, with only about 30 percent saying they would get their children vaccinated right away. Parents of infants and preschoolers expressed more anxiety about the treatment than parents of teenagers did.In trials, there have been no serious safety concerns for children thus far, and Dr.

Lee Savio Beers, the president of the American Academy of Pediatrics, heralded the recent emergency use approval of the Pfizer-BioNTech treatment for children 12 to 15 as “a critically important step in bringing life-saving treatments to children and adolescents.”Despite evidence of the treatment’s safety, several parents I spoke to over the past week were similarly hesitant about getting their children the shot. They were not skeptical about all treatments. Their children tended to be up-to-date with recommended well-child treatments. Their overall fear was related to the newness of the treatment, and unknown future outcomes.As Kimberly Johnson, 38, the mom of elementary-school-age twins in Pound Ridge, N.Y., put it to me in a Facebook message.

€œI’m not anti-vax but this all seems just too fast for me. I don’t want my children to be responding to those lawyer ads you see on TV 25 years from now. You know the ones, ‘If you were under the age of 16 in the years 2021-2022 and received the hypertension medications vaccination you could be entitled to compensation …’” #hypertension medications-signup-module { margin-left. 20px.

Margin-right. 20px. Width. Calc(100% - 40px).

Max-width. 600px. } @media (min-width. 600px) { #hypertension medications-signup-module { margin-left.

100%. } }For Teens, Concerns About Puberty and FertilityParents of adolescents I spoke to tended to be concerned about the treatment affecting puberty and future fertility for their children. Saadia Faruqi, 45, a children’s book author in Houston whose kids are 11 and 14, said that though she and her husband got the treatment, she worries about how it might affect her kids’ hormones, fertility and their growing bodies.Ms. Faruqi feels that if she makes the wrong decision for her children, “I’m going to be a bad mom,” she said.

€œI don’t want either of my kids to turn around when they’re in adulthood and ask, ‘Why did you do this?. €™â€Dr. Talib has also heard these concerns from parents of teens, and she said that while she understands the worry, there’s no biological mechanism that would make the hypertension medications treatment worse for teenagers.“Hormones related to puberty should not change the immune response, or the side effect profile of this treatment,” Dr. Talib said.

In trials, the Pfizer-BioNTech hypertension medications treatment was extremely effective for children 12-15 — there were zero breakthrough s among the kids who received the inoculation.Akiko Iwasaki, a professor of immunobiology at Yale School of Medicine, who wrote an article for The Times debunking disinformation about the hypertension medications treatment and fertility, said. €œEven during the treatment trials some of the women inadvertently got pregnant. There’s nothing even to empirically support” a link between infertility and the hypertension medications treatment. €œI have two daughters myself, who are in the 12-14 year age group, I totally understand the fear,” she said.

€œBut there’s really no basis for it.”The hypertension Outbreak ›Latest UpdatesUpdated May 14, 2021, 5:49 p.m. ETHere’s how the United States beat the variants, for now.Pfizer and Moderna treatments are powerfully effective against hypertension medications, a C.D.C. Analysis confirmed.An abrupt U.S. Change on mask guidance has set off a confusing scramble for states and cities.For Younger Children, Worries About Allergies and Side EffectsMolly Herman, 35, who has a 2-year-old and is 32 weeks pregnant with her second child, said she’s anxious about giving her daughter the treatment, even though she chose to get the shot during her pregnancy.

Her daughter has never had antibiotics and she’s barely been sick, so “I don’t know what she’s allergic to,” said Ms. Herman, who lives in Medfield, Mass., and works in higher education.Nicole Frehsee Mazur, 39, who lives in Birmingham, Mich., was also concerned about her children, who are 4 and 6, having an allergic reaction to the treatment, because she had an averse response to the Moderna shot and the kids have allergies. €œI’m not opposed to vaccinating them, I would just like to wait until more kids are vaccinated,” she said.treatments may be available for children over 2 by September at the earliest, so these concerns are theoretical at the moment. Dr.

Nia Heard-Garris, a pediatrician and a researcher at Feinberg School of Medicine at Northwestern University, said that she understands parents’ hesitations. €œThat kind of conversation has been present before we had a feasible treatment, especially from groups that have been marginalized and experimented on. It’s not a fear that’s far-fetched,” she said.But Dr. Heard-Garris said she trusts the science and the data, and that the abstract fears of the treatment’s long-term effects should be weighed against the real-life impacts of the lasix.

And for many of us, there’s buy lasix water pills never been a bigger life lasix uk buy disruption than the lasix, which changed how we work, eat, sleep and exercise, and even how we connect with friends and family.“I think this fresh start is really a big opportunity,” said Katy Milkman, a professor at the Wharton School and author of the new book “How to Change. The Science of Getting From Where You Are to Where You Want to Be. €œI don’t know when we’ll have another one like it. We have this blank slate to lasix uk buy work on.

Everything is on the table to start fresh.”Much of Dr. Milkman’s research has focused on the science of new beginnings, which she calls “the fresh start effect.” Dr. Milkman and her colleagues have found that we’re most inclined to make meaningful changes around “temporal landmarks” — those points in time that we naturally associate lasix uk buy with a new beginning. New Year’s Day is the most obvious temporal landmark in our lives, but birthdays, the start of spring, the start of a new school year, even the beginning of the week or the first of the month are all temporal landmarks that create psychological opportunities for change.In one study, Dr.

Milkman found that students were most likely to visit the gym around the start of the week, the first of the month, following birthdays or after school breaks. Another study found that “fresh start lasix uk buy language” helped people kick-start their goals. In that study, people were far more likely to start a new goal on a day labeled “the first day of spring” compared to an unremarkable day labeled “the third Thursday in March.” (It was the exact same day, just labeled differently.)Another study found that when people were advised to start saving money in a few months, they were less likely to do so than a group of people told to start saving around their birthday that was also a few months away. The birthday group saved 20 to 30 percent more money.Although the lasix is far from over, for many people, the lifting of restrictions and getting vaccinated means planning vacations and returning to more-normal work and school routines.

It’s exactly the kind of psychological new beginning that could prompt the fresh start effect, said Dr lasix uk buy. Milkman.“We have this opportunity with this blank slate to change our health habits and be very conscientious about our day,” said Dr. Milkman. €œWhat is our lunch routine going to lasix uk buy look like?.

What is our exercise routine?. There’s an opportunity to rethink. What do lasix uk buy we want a work day to look like?. € Join us for Well’s Fresh Start Challenge!.

Starting Monday May 17 we’ll text you daily tips for mindful living. To sign up, just text “Hi” (or lasix uk buy any word) to 917-809-4995 for a link to join. (Message and data rates may apply.). .outer-wrapper { display.

10px. Border-top. 1px solid rgb(226, 226, 226). Padding-top.

1px solid rgb(226, 226, 226). Margin-bottom. -10px. } .blurb { font-family.

Nyt-franklin,helvetica,arial,sans-serif. Font-size. 13px. Line-height.

Auto. } .g-outer-wrapper .g-image-holder { margin-right. 30px. Max-width.

60px;} .image-holder { margin-right. 30px. Max-width. 60px.

} @media(min-width. 600px) { .blurb { font-size. 14px. Line-height.

19px. } } .blurb a { text-decoration. Underline. } a:hover { color.

#f04e23;} a:visited { color. #808080;}It’s Not Too Late to Reset.As the lasix recedes, some people are worried that the past year of lockdowns, restrictions and time at home was a missed opportunity. Leslie Scott, a nonprofit event organizer in Eugene, Ore., said she feels that she just muddled through a stressful year, rather than using the time to make meaningful life changes.“I sometimes wonder if I squandered this gift of time,” said Ms. Scott, who is an organizer of the Oregon Truffle Festival.

€œI have all this anxiety that we’re just going to go back to what people think of as normal. As we come out of our cocoons, am I emerging from something and moving toward something new?. Or am I just stuck?. €While some people did develop healthy new habits during lasix lockdowns, it’s not too late if you spent your lasix days just getting by.

The good news is that the end of the lasix is probably a more opportune time for meaningful change than when you were experiencing the heightened anxiety of lockdowns.“hypertension medications was an awful time for many of us,” said Laurie Santos, a psychology professor at Yale who teaches a popular online course called “The Science of Well-Being.” “There’s lots of evidence for what’s called post-traumatic growth — that we can come out stronger and with a bit more meaning in our lives after going through negative events. I think we can all harness this awful lasix time as a time to get some post-traumatic growth in our own lives.”So What’s Your Next Chapter?. One of the biggest obstacles to change has always been the fact that we tend to have established routines that are hard to break. But the lasix shattered many people’s routines, setting us up for a reset, Dr.

Santos said.“We’ve all just changed our routines so much,” she said. €œI think many of us have realized during the lasix that some of the things we were doing before hypertension medications weren’t the kind of things that were leading to flourishing in our lives. I think many of us were realizing that aspects of our work and family life and even our relationships probably need to change if we want to be happier.”One reason fresh starts can be so effective is that humans tend to think about the passage of time in chapters or episodes, rather than on a continuum, Dr. Milkman said.

As a result, we tend to think of the past in terms of unique periods, such as our high school years, the college years, the years we lived in a particular town or worked at a certain job. Going forward, we’re likely to look back on the lasix year as a similarly unique chapter of our lives.“We have chapter breaks, as if life is a novel — that is the way we mark time,” said Dr. Milkman. €œThat has implications for the psychology of fresh starts, because these moments that open a new chapter give us a sense of a new beginning.

It’s easier to attribute any failings to ‘the old me.’ You feel like you can achieve more now, because we’re in a new chapter.”Take the Fresh Start Challenge!. While the start of a new chapter is a great time for change, the pages will turn quickly. Now that we’re emerging from the restrictions of lasix life, social scientists say it’s an ideal time to start thinking about what you’ve learned in the past year. What are the new habits you want to keep, and what parts of your prelasix life do you want to change?.

€œIt’s time to rethink your priorities,” said Dr. Milkman, who outlines more detailed steps for change in her new book. €œWe have to ask ourselves, ‘How am I going to schedule my time?. €™ We have a limited window to be deliberate about it, because pretty quickly, we’ll have a new pattern established, and we probably won’t rethink it again for a while.”A good first step is to take our 10-Day Fresh Start Challenge.

Sign up, and starting Monday, May 17, we’ll send one or two messages a day to prompt moments of mindful reflection, build stronger connections and take small steps toward building healthy new habits. You can text us, too!. The challenge will include 10 daily challenges, with a break over the weekend.To sign up, just text “Hi” or any word to 917-809-4995 for a link to join. (If you’re on your phone now, tap here to send the text.

Message and data rates may apply.) If you prefer not to text or live outside the United States, you can follow along on the website or app. Just bookmark this page and join us on May 17 for the first challenge.“I think a lot of us have realized how fragile some of the things were that gave us joy before, from going to the grocery store, to going out to a restaurant with friends, going to a movie, giving your mom a hug whenever you’d like,” said Dr. Santos. €œMy hope is that we’ll emerge from this lasix with a bit more appreciation for the little things in life.”AdvertisementContinue reading the main story#masthead-section-label, #masthead-bar-one { display.

None }The hypertension OutbreakLatest UpdatesMaps and CasesState Reopening Trackertreatment RolloutNew Mask Guidancetreatments and ChildrenAdvertisementContinue reading the main storySupported byContinue reading the main storyThey’re Not Anti-treatment, but These Parents Are Hesitant About the hypertension medications ShotMany of them are vaccinated, but when it comes to their kids, the unknowns give them pause.Published May 12, 2021Updated May 13, 2021Alejandra Gerardo, 9, looked up at her mother as she received her first shot of the Pfizer treatment during a clinical trial for children at Duke Health in Durham, N.C.Credit...Associated PressOn May 4, Dr. Hina Talib, who goes by the handle @teenhealthdoc on Instagram, asked the parents among her 33,000 followers if they were hesitant to get the hypertension treatment for their 12- to 15-year-olds, and if so, why. Dr. Talib, who is a physician in the adolescent medicine division at Children’s Hospital at Montefiore in New York, was surprised to get 600 messages filled with questions and concerns.More often than not, Dr.

Talib said, the parents had already had the hypertension medications treatment themselves, and would preface their message with. €œI’m not an anti-vaxxer or an anti-masker. I’m just worried.” According to recently released polls, parents across the country share those concerns, with only about 30 percent saying they would get their children vaccinated right away. Parents of infants and preschoolers expressed more anxiety about the treatment than parents of teenagers did.In trials, there have been no serious safety concerns for children thus far, and Dr.

Lee Savio Beers, the president of the American Academy of Pediatrics, heralded the recent emergency use approval of the Pfizer-BioNTech treatment for children 12 to 15 as “a critically important step in bringing life-saving treatments to children and adolescents.”Despite evidence of the treatment’s safety, several parents I spoke to over the past week were similarly hesitant about getting their children the shot. They were not skeptical about all treatments. Their children tended to be up-to-date with recommended well-child treatments. Their overall fear was related to the newness of the treatment, and unknown future outcomes.As Kimberly Johnson, 38, the mom of elementary-school-age twins in Pound Ridge, N.Y., put it to me in a Facebook message.

€œI’m not anti-vax but this all seems just too fast for me. I don’t want my children to be responding to those lawyer ads you see on TV 25 years from now. You know the ones, ‘If you were under the age of 16 in the years 2021-2022 and received the hypertension medications vaccination you could be entitled to compensation …’” #hypertension medications-signup-module { margin-left. 20px.

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100%. } }For Teens, Concerns About Puberty and FertilityParents of adolescents I spoke to tended to be concerned about the treatment affecting puberty and future fertility for their children. Saadia Faruqi, 45, a children’s book author in Houston whose kids are 11 and 14, said that though she and her husband got the treatment, she worries about how it might affect her kids’ hormones, fertility and their growing bodies.Ms. Faruqi feels that if she makes the wrong decision for her children, “I’m going to be a bad mom,” she said.

€œI don’t want either of my kids to turn around when they’re in adulthood and ask, ‘Why did you do this?. €™â€Dr. Talib has also heard these concerns from parents of teens, and she said that while she understands the worry, there’s no biological mechanism that would make the hypertension medications treatment worse for teenagers.“Hormones related to puberty should not change the immune response, or the side effect profile of this treatment,” Dr. Talib said.

In trials, the Pfizer-BioNTech hypertension medications treatment was extremely effective for children 12-15 — there were zero breakthrough s among the kids who received the inoculation.Akiko Iwasaki, a professor of immunobiology at Yale School of Medicine, who wrote an article for The Times debunking disinformation about the hypertension medications treatment and fertility, said. €œEven during the treatment trials some of the women inadvertently got pregnant. There’s nothing even to empirically support” a link between infertility and the hypertension medications treatment. €œI have two daughters myself, who are in the 12-14 year age group, I totally understand the fear,” she said.

€œBut there’s really no basis for it.”The hypertension Outbreak ›Latest UpdatesUpdated May 14, 2021, 5:49 p.m. ETHere’s how the United States beat the variants, for now.Pfizer and Moderna treatments are powerfully effective against hypertension medications, a C.D.C. Analysis confirmed.An abrupt U.S. Change on mask guidance has set off a confusing scramble for states and cities.For Younger Children, Worries About Allergies and Side EffectsMolly Herman, 35, who has a 2-year-old and is 32 weeks pregnant with her second child, said she’s anxious about giving her daughter the treatment, even though she chose to get the shot during her pregnancy.

Her daughter has never had antibiotics and she’s barely been sick, so “I don’t know what she’s allergic to,” said Ms. Herman, who lives in Medfield, Mass., and works in higher education.Nicole Frehsee Mazur, 39, who lives in Birmingham, Mich., was also concerned about her children, who are 4 and 6, having an allergic reaction to the treatment, because she had an averse response to the Moderna shot and the kids have allergies. €œI’m not opposed to vaccinating them, I would just like to wait until more kids are vaccinated,” she said.treatments may be available for children over 2 by September at the earliest, so these concerns are theoretical at the moment. Dr.

Nia Heard-Garris, a pediatrician and a researcher at Feinberg School of Medicine at Northwestern University, said that she understands parents’ hesitations. €œThat kind of conversation has been present before we had a feasible treatment, especially from groups that have been marginalized and experimented on. It’s not a fear that’s far-fetched,” she said.But Dr. Heard-Garris said she trusts the science and the data, and that the abstract fears of the treatment’s long-term effects should be weighed against the real-life impacts of the lasix.

As the A.A.P. President Dr. Beers put it. €œWhile fewer children than adults have suffered the most severe disease, this is not a benign disease in children.

Thousands of children have been hospitalized, and hundreds have died.”The doctors I spoke to were hopeful that, as the treatment becomes a reality for young kids rather than an idea, parents will become less hesitant. They urged parents, especially those whose kids have allergies, to talk to their pediatricians about the best approach for their children.

Where should I keep Lasix?

Keep out of the reach of children.

Store at room temperature between 15 and 30 degrees C (59 and 86 degrees F). Protect from light. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date.

Alternatives to lasix for congestive heart failure

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Saw Swee Hock School of Public Health, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Infectious Diseases Translational Research Programme, Department of Medicine, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, SingaporePublication date:01 June 2021More about this publication?. The International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease (IJTLD) is for clinical research and epidemiological studies on lung health, including articles on TB, TB-HIV and respiratory diseases such as hypertension medications, asthma, alternatives to lasix for congestive heart failure COPD, child lung health and the hazards of tobacco and air pollution. Individuals and institutes can subscribe to the IJTLD online or in print – simply email us at [email protected] for details. The IJTLD is dedicated to understanding lung disease and to the dissemination of knowledge leading to better lung health.

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Saw Swee Hock School of Public Health, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Infectious Diseases Translational Research Programme, lasix uk buy Department of Medicine, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, SingaporePublication date:01 June 2021More about this publication?. The International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease (IJTLD) is for clinical research and epidemiological studies on lung health, including articles on TB, TB-HIV and respiratory diseases such as hypertension medications, asthma, COPD, child lung health and the hazards of tobacco and air pollution. Individuals and institutes can subscribe to the IJTLD online or in print – simply email us at [email protected] for details.

Low price lasix

IntroductionThe mammalian kinesin superfamily proteins (KIFs) are microtubule and ATP-dependent molecular motors, which were first identified in 1985 as axonal low price lasix transporters in squid and bovine brains.1 Forty-five different kinesin family member (KIF) genes were identified in the mouse genome so far, 44 of which are official site present in the human genome. Phylogenetic analysis based on sequence homology between the human and the mouse genome led to the classification of KIF genes into 16 families, from kinesin-1 to kinesin-14B (figure 1).2 The first kinesins discovered belong to the kinesin-1 family (KIF5A, KIF5B and KIF5C), and they form a heterotetramer of two heavy chains and two light chains (KLC1-4).2 KIF genes encode KIFs, a specific class of motor proteins generating intracellular motility by driving directional transport of various cargoes such as organelles, protein complexes and mRNAs along the microtubule system.2 Studies using knockout mouse models by Hirokawa and colleagues significantly contributed to elucidate the roles of kinesins in mammalian physiology. Their role in transport is fundamental to cellular logistics and performance, and the molecular motors are not only effectors of signal transduction cascades but also transport and/or bind to important signal transduction molecules to actively modulate their function.3Phylogenetic tree of mammalian kinesin superfamily genes identified in the human (and mouse) genome and classified in 16 subfamilies (from kinesin 1 to 14B) (adapted from Hirokawa et al 3)." data-icon-position data-hide-link-title="0">Figure 1 Phylogenetic tree of mammalian kinesin superfamily genes identified in the human (and mouse) genome and classified in 16 subfamilies (from kinesin 1 to 14B) (adapted from Hirokawa low price lasix et al3).The first kinesins were observed in the context of axonal transport in neurons, and a novel disease entity of ‘motor–proteinopathy’ was proposed for the pathogenesis of axonal neuropathies in 2001.4 Due to their role in cellular membrane trafficking, however, kinesins are essential for the functioning of many polar cell types, such as neurons, epithelial cells, sperm cells or stem cells during organogenesis.

Kinesins also play a fundamental role in cell-cycle dynamics, both during mitotic and meiotic processes. They regulate chromosomal condensation and alignment, spindle formation, cytokinesis and cell-cycle progression.5 It is estimated that about a dozen kinesins low price lasix are involved in the cell cycle. Among these, there is a specific subclass of chromokinesins (kinesin 4 and kinesin 10 family) which are able to bind chromosomes.6 Recently, KIFs were discovered to act as microtubule stabilisers (KIF26A and KIF21A) and depolymerisers (KIF2A and KIF2C), activities which are important for both cellular morphogenesis and mammalian development, playing a role in neuronal and axonal morphology and ciliogenesis.7Alterations in motor kinesins are leading to human disease by various pathological mechanisms, including cancer and multifactorial and monogenic disorders.

Variants in 18 out of the 44 human KIF genes were identified to cause monogenic disorders, following different low price lasix modes of Mendelian inheritance and associated with a wide spectrum of clinical signs. These range from lethal and multiple to isolated congenital anomalies—including birth defects potentially detectable in the foetal period by current prenatal imaging studies—to postnatally apparent neurodevelopmental disorders, intellectual disability and neurological conditions.We will review the current state of knowledge of the biological processes kinesins are involved in and discuss their emerging role in human disease, particularly in birth defects and congenital anomaly syndromes. Birth defects remain a leading cause of perinatal lethality in industrialised countries.8 Structural anomalies are recognised with increasing reliability during early pregnancy by the use of high-resolution ultrasound technologies, thus raising questions about diagnosis, aetiology, prognosis and recurrence risk, particularly in the presence of more than one anomaly, which most likely indicates a genetic aetiology.

We identify recurrent phenotype patterns caused by alterations in KIF genes, and we outline the complexity of phenotype–genotype correlations mirroring the processes of intracellular microtubule-mediated transport and movement, in which kinesins play low price lasix a fundamental role. There are likely many more relationships between the clinical signs and the genetic variants to be identified in the future, and the functional network of kinesins and their role in human disease need to be further elucidated. We propose to introduce the term ‘kinesinopathies’ for this group of low price lasix conditions, which are phenotypically and genetically overlapping and characterised by the functional impairment of a specific group of molecular motors.

We hope that their systematic approach leads to a better recognition in clinical practice, as well as in genome-wide sequencing for diagnosis and research, and opens strategies for the future development of molecular therapies.KIF structureAll KIFs have a phylogenetically well-conserved motor domain head, consisting of an ATP-binding motif and a microtubule-binding domain. Depending on the position of the motor domain, kinesins can be subdivided into N-kinesins (amino-terminal motor domain), M-kinesins (middle-region motor domain) and C-kinesins (carboxy-terminal motor domain).2 Most kinesins belong to the N-kinesin subgroup, but members of the kinesin 13A family (figure 1) belong to the M-kinesin subtype, while KIF1C, KIF2C and KIF3C belong to the C- kinesin subfamily.3 Both N-kinesins and C-kinesins are responsible for plus end low price lasix and minus end-directed motility, M-kinesins for depolymerisation of microtubules in tubulin molecules. However, there are a few exceptions to this categorisation.9 The motor domain head attaches to the neck, the coiled coil stalk and the tail.

The kinesins’ neck is family-specific and responsible for the direction of motility or regulation of activity. The coiled low price lasix coil stalk and tail are involved in kinesin dimerisation and/or interactions with cargoes. Kinesins typically use scaffold proteins and adaptor proteins to bind their cargoes but can sometimes bind the cargo directly.

Scaffolds and adaptors might also have regulatory roles in kinesin-driven intracellular transport, that is, recognising specific cargoes and regulating low price lasix their loading and unloading.3Role of KIFs in physiology and diseaseThe application of genome-wide sequencing for gene identification in research or for clinical diagnostic purposes significantly contributes to the identification of KIF candidate genes. Genotype–phenotype correlations in KIF gene-related disorders, together with functional and animal studies, continue to elucidate the complex involvement of KIFs in human developmental pathways and disease. Table 1 summarises the monogenic conditions caused by variants affecting the function of KIF genes.View this table:Table 1 Specific monogenic disorders caused by variants affecting the function of KIF genesView this table:Table 2 Summary of phenotypes and genotypes of KIF149 26 30 31The kinesins’ functions in physiological processes, however, are complex and still incompletely understood, but their role in low price lasix cell-cycle progression and regulation, including both meiosis and mitosis, in intracellular trafficking, axonal transport, microtubule activity and ciliogenesis, is increasingly studied.

Figure 2 summarises the clustering of KIF genes according to their functional roles and the phenotypical consequences as identified to date in 32 out of the 44 human kinesin genes.Assignment and clustering of KIF genes to various functions and relation to birth defect or monogenic phenotype groups. Detailed phenotypes low price lasix are shown in tables 1 and 3. Cancer and multifactorial conditions are not included.

CNS, central nervous system." data-icon-position data-hide-link-title="0">Figure 2 Assignment and clustering of KIF genes to various functions and relation to birth defect or monogenic phenotype groups. Detailed phenotypes are shown in tables 1 and 3 low price lasix. Cancer and multifactorial conditions are not included.

CNS, central nervous system.Kinesins play a low price lasix pivotal role during early development and organogenesis. Microcephaly is one of the most frequently associated clinical signs, mirroring a defect in the regulation of the final number of neurons during development.10KIF4A is a motor protein that translocates PRC1, a cytokinesis protein, to the ends of the spindle microtubules during mitosis, regulates the PARP1 activity in brain development and the survival of neurons, and is a member of the L1CAM recycling pathway. Variants in L1CAM cause X-linked low price lasix isolated and syndromic hydrocephalus.

KIF4A was recently proposed as a candidate gene for hydrocephalus.11KIFs are involved in neuronal branching, and microtubule depolarisation, operated by KIF2A M-kinesin, was suggested to suppress collateral branch extension during brain development, leading to anomalies of cortical development, including agyria and pachygyria, subcortical band heterotopia and corpus callosum anomalies.12Functional disruption of KIF genes in knockout mice often results in embryonic lethality, for example, for Kif18A, Kif10, Kif3A, Kif3B and Kif5B,13–17 highlighting the importance of kinesins in embryonic and foetal development. A study on KIF16B demonstrated that microtubule-based trafficking is responsible for early development and stem cell survival.18 KIF26B is essential in kidney development, contributing to the adhesion of mesenchymal cells to the ureteric bud.3 KIF26A was suggested to play a role in enteric nervous system development, because knockout mice develop a megacolon and enteric nerve hypoplasia,19 and to negatively regulate nociceptive sensation.20A significant number of KIFs play a prominent role in ciliogenesis and cilia function. They regulate cilia length, ciliary assembly/disassembly and can have motile cilia-specific functions.21 Some KIFs, specifically low price lasix found in primary cilia (PC), regulate the length of the axoneme and its disassembly when re-entering the cell cycle.KIF7, also a key component of the Hedgehog signalling pathway, is responsible for cilia length regulation through suppression of microtubule polymerisation.7 KIF7 variants cause hydrolethalus, acrocallosal, and Joubert and Al-Gazali-Bakalinova syndromes.22 Kif2A knockout mice have severe brain defects, and KIF2A variants in humans lead to microcephaly because of cell-cycle delay in cellular progenitors resulting from cilia disassembly defects.

KIF24, belonging to the same kinesin 13 family, plays a role in both microtubule depolymerising activity and regulation of the early steps of ciliogenesis. Other PC-related KIFs recently identified are KIF5B, KIF1C low price lasix and KIF13B, and a potential role in cilia was hypothesised for KIF11 and KIF14.KIF3 protein complex (KIF3A-KIF3B-KAP3 heterotetramer) is a molecular motor necessary for intraflagellar transport (IFT) but is also involved in ciliogenesis of motile cilia. Kif3a-knockout or Kif3b-knockout mice are prenatally lethal, exhibiting anomalies similar to ciliopathy phenotypes, including the disturbance of left–right body determination.3KIF19A is localised at the tip of motile cilia and performs motor and microtubule-depolymerising activities during IFT.

Kif19a-knockout mice present with hydrocephalus and female infertility, common signs in ciliary defects, due to abnormally elongated cilia with altered motility, not able to generate proper fluid flow.9Further KIFs, which may have low price lasix specific roles in motile cilia, are KIF27, KIF9, KIF6 and KIF18B. Regarding the involvement of numerous KIFs in cilia-related processes, it is not surprising that many disorders caused by variants affecting KIF gene function are presenting with anomalies reminiscent of ciliopathies.Kinesin motors have a fundamental role in neuronal function, as they are responsible for the transport of synaptic vesicle precursors and transmitter receptors along axons and dendrites from the neuron body.3 Molecular motor activity as for KIF1A, KIF5 and KIF17 is important for higher brain functions, such as learning and memory through regulation of synaptic transmission.5 Dysfunction can be associated with intellectual disability and global developmental delay (table 1).Impaired function can also result in peripheral neuropathies (KIF5A, KLC2, KIF1A and KIF1B) and ocular motility disorders (KLC2 and KIF21A)23 24 when axon elongation in the peripheral nervous system and optic nerve is affected. KIF5A variants are associated with epileptic phenotypes both in humans and mice25 because the transport of neurotransmitter receptors is disturbed and inhibitory regulation is altered.Due to their role in cell-cycle regulation, kinesins are important in male spermatogenesis and female oogenesis.

They are involved in all steps of spermatogenesis 26 and, based on previous animal studies, they may represent a potential low price lasix target to treat male infertility. In female meiosis, 13 KIF genes were studied in animal models. There is some low price lasix evidence that kinesin expression is vulnerable to maternal ageing and environmental factors, such as oocyte cryopreservation and alcohol consumption.

It may be promising to expand research in this field in order to clarify the mechanisms and factors contributing to oocyte quality decline.27Many kinesins were extensively studied in the fields of cancer development, progression and therapy. Deregulation of the mitotic kinesins by both overexpression and decreased low price lasix expression causes cancer progression or can be a prognostic marker in various tumours.28 The cell-permeable small-molecule mitotic inhibitor monastrol was discovered in 199929 and was shown to arrest cells in mitosis by specifically inhibiting KIF11, a kinesin important for spindle bipolarity. The bipolar mitotic spindle is replaced by a monoastral microtubule array surrounded by a ring of chromosomes, which gave the inhibitor its name.

The mitotic spindle is now a well-known target of chemotherapy, and inhibitors low price lasix of the mitotic kinesins KIF11, KIF10 and KIF1C are being studied for this purpose.28 30 The redundancy of some kinesins allows them to escape pharmacological inhibition. For example, in the absence of KIF10, KIF15 is able to replace all of its essential functions in spindle assembly. Cilia-related KIF7, KIF13B and KIF27 are involved in SHh signalling and may be a future target in cancer research.28Some kinesins confer susceptibility to a range of multifactorial, metabolic and neurodegenerative conditions.

KIF13B contributes to the enhancement of endocytosis of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor-related protein 1 that is involved in low price lasix the recognition and internalisation of LDL and factor VIII. Kif13b-knockout mice have hypercholesterolaemia and higher factor VIII serum levels.5 KIF12 is implicated in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes, protecting pancreatic β cells from the oxidative stress caused by nutritional excess.5 Variants in KIF1B or KIF21B confer susceptibility to multiple sclerosis (OMIM %612596, #126200).31 32 KIF5A was associated with Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (OMIM #617921).33 KIF3 complex and KIF17 were recently uncovered to be involved in schizophrenia.34 35 Further studies, however, are needed to clarify the precise role of KIFs in neurodegenerative processes and psychiatric conditions.KIF14 -related birth defects. Lessons learntAdvances in next-generation sequencing technologies have low price lasix revolutionised our understanding of Mendelian disorders, including birth defect phenotypes, by sequencing the coding genome (exome) or entire genome at an unprecedented resolution in a comparably short time span.

The technology has been extensively used for gene identification approaches in research for many years, enabling unparalleled genotype–phenotype correlations and the definition of novel pathways of related genes and disorders at an accelerated pace, traditionally focusing on postnatal disorders. Filges and Friedman36 postulated that a number of novel disease genes causing birth defects could be identifiable through the investigation of lethal foetal phenotypes since they would represent the extreme end of low price lasix allelic milder and viable postnatal phenotypes with less specific or recognisable anomaly patterns. Based on embryonically or perinatally lethal mouse models (www.informatics.jax.org and www.dmdd.org.uk), it is estimated that knockout variants in about 30% of human protein coding genes may present with a phenotype of early lethality.

The identification of KIF14 loss of function variants in fetuses with a lethal multiple congenital anomaly syndrome and the subsequent description of the allelic postnatal viable phenotype and further functional characterisation of KIF14 in developmental processes are recent examples of how to study those embryonic lethal phenotypes in order to understand the role of genes for which little to nothing is known.Filges et al identified autosomal recessive compound heterozygous loss of function variants in KIF14 using family-based exome sequencing in a recurrent severe lethal phenotype (OMIM #616258). It was the first human phenotype reported due to variants in the human KIF14 gene (figure 3).37 The two affected siblings presented with intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR), oligohydramnios, severe microcephaly, renal cystic dysplasia or agenesis, genital tract malformations (uterine hypoplasia and vaginal atresia), as well as cerebral and low price lasix cerebellar hypoplasias with partial or total agenesis of the vermis, arhinencephaly, agenesis of occipital lobes/corpus callosum at second trimester ultrasound scan. Cross-species comparison to the laggard spontaneous mice mutant, characterised by homozygous variants of the Kif14 gene,38 confirmed a phenotypical overlap.

An increased number of binucleated cells in the tissue low price lasix histology of the two fetuses were in concordance with the key role of KIF14 during mitosis participating in chromosomes’ congression and alignment, as well as in cytokinesis39 and the observation of binucleated cells as a consequence of failed cytokinesis in mammalian KIF14 knockdown cells. During cytokinesis, PRC1 localises KIF14 at the central spindle and midbody, which in turn recruits citron rho-interacting kinase (CIT) to the midbody. CIT, in low price lasix turn, acts as a negative regulator of KIF14 activity.

Knockdown of KIF14 in mammalian cells results in impaired localisation of CIT during mitosis.40Structure of KIF14 and summary of all published KIF14 variants affecting function.10 37 41 42 The N-terminal region (aa 1–356) is important for its interactions with PRC1 and the protein’s localisation at the central spindle and midbody. The kinesin motor domain (aa 358–701) is responsible for the microtubule-dependent ATPase activity. The FHA low price lasix domain (aa 825–891).

Stalk and tail region (aa 891–1648) are necessary for the interaction with the protein CRIK (aa 901–1189, red diagonal lines). There are four additional coiled-coil domains (light blue-coloured areas).61 low price lasix FHA, forkhead associated. Aa, amino acid." data-icon-position data-hide-link-title="0">Figure 3 Structure of KIF14 and summary of all published KIF14 variants affecting function.10 37 41 42 The N-terminal region (aa 1–356) is important for its interactions with PRC1 and the protein’s localisation at the central spindle and midbody.

The kinesin low price lasix motor domain (aa 358–701) is responsible for the microtubule-dependent ATPase activity. The FHA domain (aa 825–891). Stalk and tail region (aa 891–1648) are necessary for the interaction with the low price lasix protein CRIK (aa 901–1189, red diagonal lines).

There are four additional coiled-coil domains (light blue-coloured areas).61 FHA, forkhead associated. Aa, amino acid.Filges et al pointed out that KIF14 should be considered a candidate gene for viable postnatal phenotypes, including isolated microcephaly.34 Additional individuals with autosomal recessive variants in KIF14 and isolated primary microcephaly were then described9 41 42 (table 2).Impaired cytokinesis, increased apoptosis and reduced cell motility were confirmed in cells from the described patients, pointing to a new cellular pathway in the pathogenesis of microcephaly.43 Apart from one case with small kidneys with increased echogenicity, none of these 18 patients had associated kidney anomalies. However, a targeted exome sequencing study in 204 unrelated patients with congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) reported two more cases of renal anomalies, bilateral hypoplasia or agenesis, caused by KIF14 variants.44 Further nine cases had an associated renal phenotype, which ranged from bilateral renal agenesis to cystic or non-cystic renal hypodysplasia.42 Table 2 and low price lasix figure 3 summarise KIF14 variants and the associated phenotypes.

Loss of function variants more likely lead to multiple congenital anomalies, while hypomorphic variants result in a milder phenotype without renal involvement, although phenotype–genotype correlations remain preliminary for the time being.The phenotypical spectrum ranging from isolated primary microcephaly to congenital anomalies reminiscent of ciliopathy phenotypes suggested a complex role for KIF14 in developmental processes and raised a number of questions about the relationship between its established role in cell division and its possible function in ciliary pathways. Functional studies of absent KIF14 protein in the development of human foetal tissues and mutant zebrafish provided evidence for similarities and differences between mitotic events occurring during proliferation low price lasix in the development of both brain and kidney.42 The observation that KIF14-stained midbodies accumulate within the lumen of the branch tips of ureteric buds in human foetal kidneys provided a key clue to better understand the mechanism through which the loss of KIF14 affects both brain and kidney development in humans. It was previously demonstrated that the secretion and accumulation of midbody remnants in the cerebrospinal fluid in mice during the early stages of brain development correspond to the amplification of neural progenitors.45 Kif14 mutant zebrafish phenotypes supported the hypothesis of a potential role for KIF14 in cilia.

In vitro and in vivo analyses suggested that loss of kif14 causes ciliary anomalies through an accumulation of mitotic cells in ciliated tissues but failed to establish a direct functional link.21 low price lasix 42 Further mechanisms remain to be elucidated. Overexpression of KIF14 in various types of tumours was suggested to be a possible prognostic marker and a potential target for therapeutic purposes.46Kinesinopathies in birth defect phenotypes. Recurrent themesIn the last few years, an increasing number of variants in KIF genes were described to cause isolated as well as multiple congenital anomalies.

There is low price lasix a huge variability of phenotypes caused by variants even within the same gene. However, we can identify recurrent clinical signs that should alert the clinician to suspect a KIF gene-related disorder and the molecular geneticist to include KIF genes in multigene-panel and genome-wide sequencing approaches. This will become particularly relevant in prenatal and perinatal medicine, which focuses on the detection of structural anomalies in the fetus and the newborn low price lasix by using ultrasound and MRI or autopsy when the outcome is lethal.

We have summarised the predominant and recurrent structural anomalies in kinesinopathies reported so far that would likely become apparent during the foetal period in table 3 and the syndromic disorders in table 1.View this table:Table 3 KIF gene-related structural congenital anomalies recurrently described in prenatal phenotypesSupplemental materialConsistent with the kinesins’ role in the development of the central nervous system (CNS), brain anomalies of various degrees are a frequent clinical sign, particularly microcephaly, but include lissencephaly, polymicrogyria, thinned or agenesis of the corpus callosum, arhinencephaly, cerebral hypoplasia or atrophy, cerebellar hypoplasia or atrophy, brainstem hypoplasia and a molar tooth sign on brain imaging.12 22 37 44 47–51Primary microcephaly can be detected prenatally or at birth12 22 47 48 50 51 and can present as an isolated or syndromic condition as, for example, caused by variants in KIF149 or in KIF11 (microcephaly with or without chorioretinopathy, lymphoedema or mental retardation. OMIM #152950).48KIF7 variants were related to macrocephaly in the presence of congenital hydrocephalus (hydrolethalus low price lasix syndrome LS2, OMIM # 614120). Isolated hydrocephalus was reported for KIF4A in a single case.11Foetal akinesia and arthrogryposis (KIF5C12, KIF1434 and KIF26B50) are likely secondary to the neurological compromise of the fetus but can also appear as an early sign of abnormal CNS development, which should prompt specialist CNS sonographic and MRI evaluation of the fetus.Further anomalies of the limbs include camptodactyly (KIF26B50), clubfoot (KIF1A51), rocker-bottom feet (KIF26B50) and congenital lymphoedema of the limbs (dorsa of feet, lower extremities and, rarely, hands) in cases with KIF11 gene mutations.48 In particular, KIF7 gene variants have been related to various anomalies of the hands (tapered fingers, fifth finger clinodactyly, brachydactyly, preaxial or postaxial polydactyly, bifid terminal phalanges of the thumbs, spindle-shaped fingers, clinodactyly and soft tissue webbing) and feet (toe syndactyly, preaxial or postaxial polydactyly, and duplicated halluces).22CAKUT and genital anomalies are reported in various kinesinopathies including renal agenesis or hypoplasia (KIF1437 and KIF1252), ureteral hypoplasia (KIF1437), congenital megabladder (KIF1252) and vesicoureteral reflux (KIF1252), uterine hypoplasia and vaginal atresia (KIF1437) and hypospadias and chordae (KIF16B49).IUGR is recurrently detected (KIF5C12, KIF1437, KIF1053, KIF1554 and KIF2A12) and is particularly relevant when occurring simultaneously with one of the other recurrent clinical signs, indicating a potential syndromic KIF-related disorder.

Oligohydramnios or polyhydramnios is most likely secondary to a primary organ anomaly.There are a few kinesinopathy syndromes that have been specifically reported to be lethal, such as the ciliary phenotype (OMIM #616258), caused by variants in KIF1434, and hydrolethalus syndrome (OMIM #614120), caused by variants in KIF7.22 However, lethality is usually closely related to the specific major anomalies, and it can be hypothesised that such a lethal phenotype will exist for all KIF gene-related disorders.Developmental delay, intellectual disability, seizures, and sensory and motor disturbances of the peripheral nervous system, as well as eye anomalies, such as microphthalmy, optic nerve pallor, fibrosis of extraocular muscles and chorioretinopathy, will escape detection in the foetal period but are reported in postnatal patients.Kinesin pathways in birth defectsFunctional studies of kinesins in birth defects are still sparse, and little is known about their networks and pathways. In order to improve our understanding, we used the Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA Qiagen, Redwood City, California, USA) to visualise and analyse the connections between the 13 kinesin motor proteins associated with structural congenital anomalies (KIF5C, KIF1A, KIF1BP, KIF14, KIF16B, KIF7, KIF4A, KIF11, KIF10, KIF26B, KIF12, KIF15 and low price lasix KIF2A) and in up to 10 of each of their most significant downstream proteins. The connections are defined as protein–protein interactions, activation, regulation of binding, expression, localisation, phosphorylation, protein–RNA interactions, molecular cleavage, ubiquitination, protein–DNA interactions, inhibition, translocation and transcription.

Figure 3 displays low price lasix the results. We used the software Gephy55 to look for all possible interactions between all proteins of the network and also used the IPA data to retrieve the canonical pathways involved. Figure 4 and online supplementary material, table 4, summarise low price lasix the results.

KIF7, KIF14 and KIF12 are located within the same network, and because of multiple connections between themselves and their downstream proteins, it is not surprising that they are all involved in kidney anomalies. IPA data are based on current publications and are therefore subject to low price lasix bias because proteins that are most interconnected are also most probably those that have been more extensively studied. However, we consider the KIF genes coding for proteins seeming less important within the network to be strong candidates for future studies of human developmental disorders.IPA of the 13 kinesins known to be involved in birth defects with respect to their position in the cell.

Proteins displayed on the right side of the figure, below the tag ‘other’, are those for which no subcellular location is known. Birth defect-related kinesins and their connection with low price lasix each other are highlighted in green. Light blue-coloured downstream proteins are those which are known to cause birth defects when altered.

Yellow-coloured proteins are those involved in neurological disorders overlapping with the clinical features of kinesinopathies low price lasix. The legend of the biological function associated with every molecule is displayed on the right. Path Designer low price lasix by IPA was used for the figure design.

IPA, Ingenuity Pathway Analysis." data-icon-position data-hide-link-title="0">Figure 4 IPA of the 13 kinesins known to be involved in birth defects with respect to their position in the cell. Proteins displayed on the right side of the figure, below the tag ‘other’, are those for which no subcellular location is known. Birth defect-related kinesins and their connection low price lasix with each other are highlighted in green.

Light blue-coloured downstream proteins are those which are known to cause birth defects when altered. Yellow-coloured proteins are those low price lasix involved in neurological disorders overlapping with the clinical features of kinesinopathies. The legend of the biological function associated with every molecule is displayed on the right.

Path Designer by IPA was used for the figure low price lasix design. IPA, Ingenuity Pathway Analysis.Closing remarks and future perspectivesNovel KIF genes are increasingly identified, and there is a growing body of literature demonstrating the impact of kinesin dysfunction in human disease. We propose to introduce the term kinesinopathies for conditions caused by variants in KIF low price lasix genes, since recurrent and common functional and phenotypical themes can be observed.

In analogy to ciliopathies56 and rasopathies,57 the delineation of the clinical, genetic and functional hallmarks of kinesinopathies will be important to better recognise these conditions, to understand the pathomechanisms and to ultimately improve the clinical management of the patients. Previously, the unified view of the phenotype characteristics of ciliary dysfunction allowed a tremendous increase in awareness, both in clinic and research, and the further identification of yet unrecognised ciliary disorders and the genes and proteins involved in their pathogenesis.56Remarkable progress was achieved in assigning function to kinesins through their study in isolated and multiple congenital anomaly phenotypes. They are one large superfamily of molecular motors out of three (kinesins, dyneins and myosins), which is of key importance in several fundamental cellular processes using microtubules as rails for directional anterograde intracellular transport, including its regulation and modulating signal transduction.5 Kinesin motors are most important for the movement of chromosomes along the spindles during chromosome segregation, regulation of low price lasix spindle formation, cell division and cytokinesis.

These essential and broad cellular functions are critical for many physiological processes such as neuronal function and survival, some ciliary functions and ciliogenesis, determination of the left/right asymmetry of our body and regulation of organogenesis, thus explaining the impact and emerging recognition of kinesins in embryonic and foetal development. Defects can result in neuropathies, low price lasix higher brain functions and structural brain anomalies. Multiple congenital anomalies, including the kidney and urinary tract and limb anomalies, are repeatedly reported.

Microcephaly, which is usually not associated with genes implicated in specific low price lasix ciliary mechanisms, and CNS anomalies are the most recurrent clinical signs in both the prenatal and postnatal phenotypes described so far. The discovery of the implication of KIF14 in microcephaly further suggested a possible novel role of other microcephaly proteins in cytokinesis. A number of syndromic kinesinopathies present, however, with phenotype patterns reminiscent of ciliopathies.

So far, however, low price lasix a direct functional impact was confirmed in only a few and could not be demonstrated, for example, for KIF14, despite an overlapping clinical pattern. In turn, ciliopathies are a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of conditions themselves. Studying tissue and cell type-specific low price lasix function and expression may help to further define the specific defects related to the individual aberrant kinesin.The pleiotropic nature of human kinesinopathies, however, is just emerging, but their study promises to provide important insights into human developmental pathways.

Seemingly unrelated clinical entities are highlighting a common theme. In a relatively short time span, monogenic KIF-related disorders were identified to present with often severe and lethal antenatal anomalies, with multiple or isolated congenital anomalies, neurodevelopmental and low price lasix neurological disorders, or an increased susceptibility to multifactorial conditions. We focused on the emerging role of kinesins in structural congenital anomalies because, as illustrated for the KIF14 gene, great potential to decipher allelic viable phenotypes and developmental pathways lies in the study of these human knockout phenotypes at the severe end of the phenotypical spectrum.

Knockout variants in about 30% of human protein coding genes in our genome may present with a phenotype of early lethality, and KIF genes seem to play an important role in such fundamental processes of human development. Identifying and characterising the variants, genes and phenotypes will extend our knowledge on early human development and pathomechanisms, and will ultimately also improve the clinical utility of genome-wide sequencing approaches for prenatal and postnatal application by our increased low price lasix ability to interpret loss of function and hypomorphic variants alike. Furthermore, kinesins were extensively studied in cancer research and therapeutic strategies targeting their specific functions, such as the example of monastrol and other inhibitors of the mitotic kinesins may be adopted in the future.

There are likely many more kinesinopathies to be unravelled in the field of birth defects because of their pivotal role in cellular logistics, but their recognition in clinics and research will depend on our ability to identify and characterise the common clinical, molecular and functional themes of these disorders and to use them to improve our understanding of their disease mechanisms.IntroductionIntellectual disability (ID) affects about low price lasix 3% of individuals worldwide and raises significant issues in terms of diagnostic, management and genetic counselling. The presence of pigmentation anomalies in a patient with ID represents helpful clinical clues in order to narrow the range of aetiological hypothesis. Hypomelanosis of Ito (HMI, MIM #300337) is an unspecific term encompassing a heterogeneous group of disorders characterised by cutaneous hypopigmented whorls and streaks along Blaschko’s lines and variable extracutaneous features affecting the musculoskeletal and nervous systems.1 The cutaneous pattern therefore represents a non-specific hallmark of mosaicism low price lasix in these neurocutaneous conditions.

Genetic mosaicism is due to postzygotic mutations, either chromosomal rearrangements or point mutations, whereas random X inactivation in females leads to functional mosaicism.2 Unravelling the molecular basis of pigmentary mosaicism (PM) is still a challenge due to clinical and genetic heterogeneity, technical difficulties in detecting mosaic mutations by classical sequencing approaches and the complexities of obtaining affected tissue. As part of a collaborative group, we recently reported de novo mutations in exons 3 and 4 of transcription factor E3 (TFE3) as the cause for HMI in four unrelated individuals, including one male, as well as syndromic ID without pigmentary disorders in a female.3TFE3 belongs to the MITF family of mammalian low price lasix basic helix–loop–helix zipper transcription factors, together with TFEB and TFEC. All four can form homodimers or heterodimers with each other.4 Embryonic expression of TFE3 orthologues Tfe3a and Tfe3b was demonstrated in the zebrafish in a wide range of tissues.5 TFE3 subcellular localisation plays a crucial role in the regulation of cellular homeostasis and embryonic stem cell (ESC) differentiation.

The phosphorylated TFE3 is retained in the cytoplasm, whereas dephosphorylated protein translocates to the nucleus to promote the transcription of target genes involved in lysosomal biogenesis and autophagy.6 TFE3 relocalisation to the nucleus is driven on various stressors, such as starvation,7 8 DNA damage,9 mitochondrial damage,10 Golgi stress11 and pathogens12 in an mTORC1-dependent manner, and oxidative stress13 or cadmium exposition14 in an mTORC1-independent manner. Moreover, lysosomal signalling-induced nucleocytoplasmic redistribution of TFE3 is essential to the regulation of ESC renewal.3 15 By restricting nuclear localisation and activity of Tfe3, lysosome activity, the tumour suppressor protein folliculin and the Ragulator protein complex enable the exit from pluripotency low price lasix and therefore drive differentiation. Conversely, enforced nuclear Tfe3 enables ESCs to withstand differentiation.15 In humans, TFE3 mutations have long been known in cancer.

Gene fusions by translocations or other chromosomal rearragements involving TFE3 and five partner genes have indeed been reported to occur in a subset of renal cell carcinomas (RCCs), referred to as ‘TFE-fusion RCC’, and, more rarely, to lung sarcoma and perivascular epithelioid cell tumours.16 Beyond these data on TFE3 function, by the report of a series of 17 individuals harbouring de novo mutations in exons 3 and 4 of TFE3, we emphasise their phenotype low price lasix and bring additional clinical insight toward the recognition of this novel developmental disorder.ResultsWe describe a series of 17 patients carrying a de novo mutation in TFE3, 5 of them being previously published with limited clinical information.3 Twelve were females and five were males. Their age ranged from 12 months to 22 years. Five were referred for HMI, five for syndromic ID and five for suspicion of storage disorder.Clinical dataThe clinical features are low price lasix summarised in table 1.

Additional information can be found in online supplementary data 1.Supplemental materialView this table:Table 1 Clinical and molecular features of the 17 patients with an TFE3 mutationNeonatal course was remarkable for nine patients. History of jaundice, hepatomegaly or feeding difficulties was reported for three patients each, hypoglycaemia for two and cholestasis for one. All these features were transient.Developmental delay, usually severe and noticeable from the first low price lasix months of life, was a constant feature in all the individuals.

Only 6 patients were able to walk at the time of the study, whereas 11 were still unable to walk. All patients were non-verbal, except for two older low price lasix patients who could speak a few words. Neurological examination was abnormal in 12 individuals and consisted in truncal hypotonia, associated with lower limb spasticity (6 individuals) or ataxia (2 adults).

Behavioural issues such low price lasix as autistic features and sleeping disturbance were noted for 11 patients. Eleven patients developed epilepsy, onset in the first decade and characterised as intractable in three of them. Brain MRI was normal in 10 individuals and abnormal in 6 patients (hydrocephaly, short corpus callosum, Dandy-Walker malformation, arachnoid cyst, periventricular white matter lesions, delayed myelination and cerebral atrophy).

The sensory anomaly was congenital hearing loss (5 patients), and ophtalmological anomalies (10 patients) consisted of strabismus, hyperopia, retinal degeneration, depigmented macule on low price lasix the iris, oculomotor apraxia or impaired vision of cortical origin.Facial dysmorphism shared among the patients consisted in coarseness, flat nasal bridge, short nose with anteverted nares, widely spaced eyes, almond-shaped eyes, thick lips, facial hypertrichosis, fleshy earlobe, and full and pink cheeks (figure 1). Twelve patients had pigmentation anomalies, located on Blaschko’s lines for 10 of them (figure 2). One was diagnosed at 4 low price lasix years old with histiocytofibroma.

Moderate to lasix price per pill severe postnatal growth retardation affected 10 patients, who had a length between −2.0 and −4.5 SD. Obesity affected 13 individuals low price lasix. Skeletal anomalies were frequent (11 individuals) and consisted of flat or clubfeet, hyperlordosis, scoliosis, hip dislocation, limitation of elbow extension and genu valgum.

Recurrent s low price lasix of the upper airways were noted in five patients. One had a documented neutropenia. Early-onset chronic interstitial lung disease was reported in two patients.

Nail clubbing low price lasix was noted in two individuals. Visceral malformations consisted of congenital heart defect (left ventricle dilatation, aortic insufficiency and patent ductus arteriosus) in three patients, umbilical hernia in three individuals, lateral semicircular canal dysplasia, posterior plagiocephaly, sleep apnoea syndrome, anteriorly displaced anus and hypospadias in one individual each.Facial phenotypes of seven patients. (A–C) Patient 5, low price lasix aged 6 months (A,B) and 3 years (C).

(D) Patient 8, aged 5 years. (E,F) Patient 2, aged 5 and 20 low price lasix years. (G–I) Patient 3, aged 1 year (G) and 3 years (H,I).

(J,K) Patient 13, aged 22 years. (L–O) Patient 6, aged 8 months (L), 20 months (M) low price lasix and 3 years (N,O). (P,Q) Patient 10 aged 22 years." data-icon-position data-hide-link-title="0">Figure 1 Facial phenotypes of seven patients.

(A–C) Patient 5, aged 6 months (A,B) and 3 low price lasix years (C). (D) Patient 8, aged 5 years. (E,F) Patient 2, aged 5 and 20 low price lasix years.

(G–I) Patient 3, aged 1 year (G) and 3 years (H,I). (J,K) Patient 13, aged 22 years. (L–O) Patient 6, aged 8 months (L), 20 months (M) and low price lasix 3 years (N,O).

(P,Q) Patient 10 aged 22 years.Cutaneous features. (A) Patient low price lasix 3. Umbilical hernia, widely spaced nipples and hypopigmentation on the left side of the abdomen.

(B) Patient 17 low price lasix. Hypotonia, umbilical hernia and widely spaced nipples. (C) Patient low price lasix 8.

Blaschko’s lines on the back. (D) Patient 6. Hypopigmentation on the left side of low price lasix the abdomen.

(E) Patient 7. Blaschko’s lines on the abdomen and right side of the low price lasix trunk. (F) Patient 13.

Hand. Note clubbing of thumbnail and loose skin. (G) Patient 17.

Blaschko’s lines on the left side of the abdomen. (H) Patient 17. Hand.

Note tapering fingers and wrinkled skin. (I) Patient 1. Linear hypopigmentation on the back.

(J) Patient 6. Blaschko’s lines on the back. (K) Patient 3.

Blachko’s lines on the right lower limb. (L) Patient 6. Blaschko’s lines on the right lower limb.

(M,N) Patient 7. Linear hyperpigmentation on the lower limbs. (O) Patient 11.

Blaschko’s lines on the back." data-icon-position data-hide-link-title="0">Figure 2 Cutaneous features. (A) Patient 3. Umbilical hernia, widely spaced nipples and hypopigmentation on the left side of the abdomen.

(B) Patient 17. Hypotonia, umbilical hernia and widely spaced nipples. (C) Patient 8.

Blaschko’s lines on the back. (D) Patient 6. Hypopigmentation on the left side of the abdomen.

(E) Patient 7. Blaschko’s lines on the abdomen and right side of the trunk. (F) Patient 13.

Hand. Note clubbing of thumbnail and loose skin. (G) Patient 17.

Blaschko’s lines on the left side of the abdomen. (H) Patient 17. Hand.

Note tapering fingers and wrinkled skin. (I) Patient 1. Linear hypopigmentation on the back.

(J) Patient 6. Blaschko’s lines on the back. (K) Patient 3.

Blachko’s lines on the right lower limb. (L) Patient 6. Blaschko’s lines on the right lower limb.

(M,N) Patient 7. Linear hyperpigmentation on the lower limbs. (O) Patient 11.

Blaschko’s lines on the back.Molecular resultsThe characteristics of the 13 different de novo TFE3 variants identified in the 17 unrelated individuals are summarised in table 2. All but one were missense variants, affecting nine different aminoacids. One was a splice donor mutation.

This mutation was reported a few weeks ago in a patient with a similar phenotype.21 Two variants were localised in exon 3 and 11 in exon 4 (figure 3). All were absent from public databases and were predicted to be pathogenic by prediction softwares. TFE3 protein and localisation of the missense variants identified.

In bold are variants identified in two patients. In bold and underlined is the variant identified in three patients. In green is the intronic variant." data-icon-position data-hide-link-title="0">Figure 3 TFE3 protein and localisation of the missense variants identified.

In bold are variants identified in two patients. In bold and underlined is the variant identified in three patients. In green is the intronic variant.View this table:Table 2 Molecular data of the 13 de novo TFE3 mutations.

Characteristics, inheritance, frequency in the public database GnomAD, prediction scores regarding pathogenicity (Polyphen, Grantham and CADD (Combined Annotation Dependant Depletion) scores). The transcript is NM_006521.5The putative mosaicism was assessed through X inactivation studies in females and analysis of the exome sequencing data in males, by checking the total number of reads covering the variant, as well as the number of reads supporting the presence of the variant (table 1). Allele frequencies in females were always consistent with a constitutional heterozygous mutation.

X inactivation was skewed in blood of the female patients 1, 3 and 7 and in fibroblasts of Patient 2. X inactivation was random in fibroblasts of Patient 1 and 3. Regarding the male patients, the mutation was identified in 65% of the reads for Patient 17% and 88% of the reads for Patient 15 (106/120).

No mosaicism was detected in the blood of Patient 13, 14 and 16 despite the presence of pigmentary manifestations in Patient 16.DiscussionTFE3 functions in signalling of the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex 1 (mTORC1). The PIK3-AKT-mTOR pathway plays a role in the regulation of cellular growth, proliferation, survival and metabolism. Overactivation of the mTOR signalling is responsible for neurocutaneous disorders and cancers.22 Somatic mutations in TSC1, TSC2, AKT3, PIK3CA and MTOR are responsible for focal cortical dysplasia type II (MIM607341),23–25 hemimegalencephaly26 and megalencephaly.27 The phenotype ascribed to germline TSC1/TSC2, PTEN, MTOR and PK3R2/AKT3/CCND2 mutations – respectively in tuberous sclerosis (TS, MIM 191100), Cowden syndrome (CS, MIM 158350), Smith-Kingsmore syndrome (MIM 616638) and Megalencephaly, Polymicrogyria, Polydactyly and Hydrocephalus syndrome 1, 2 and 3 (MPPH1/2/3, MIM 603387/615939/615938) - is characterised by the association of ID, epilepsy, brain malformations and skin tumours.

Similarly, all the individuals harbouring a de novo TFE3 mutation reported in the series presented with a severe neurodevelopmental disorder. Delayed psychomotor development was constant. The youngest patient to acquire independent walking was 30 months old, and more than half of the patients aged over 18 months (57%), did not acquire walk at the last examination.

Conversely to patients with MTOR, AKT3 or PTEN mutation, none of the patients described in this series had macrocephaly. Brain imaging was abnormal in 35% of the patients. Hydrocephaly and corpus callosum dysgenesis, identified in respectively three and one individual, were previously reported in patients with mosaic gain of function MTOR mutations.28 29 One patient had surgery to remove an early-onset histiocytofibroma.

However, no other skin tumour was reported, either in this patient or in any other from the series.Pigmentation anomalies, along Blaschko’s lines or, for one patient, as a large hyperpigmented area, were present in a majority of the individuals (71%) in the series, including 40% of the males and 83% of the females. PM along Blaschko’s lines is highly suggestive of genetic mosaicism.30 Genomic mosaicism is defined by the presence of at least two cell populations with different genotypes in an individual originating from one zygote and mainly occurs through post-zygotic event, whereas females can present with functional (epigenetics) mosaicism due to X inactivation.2 PM is a classical feature of X-linked male-lethal genodermatosis, such as incontinentia pigmenti (IP, MIM #308300), focal dermal hypoplasia (FDH, MIM #305600), chondrodysplasia punctuata type 2 (Conradi-Hunermann-Happle syndrome, CDPX2, MIM #302960) and linear skin defects with multiple congenital anomalies (LSDMCA1, MIM #309801). In these conditions, the overwhelming predominance of affected females is a consequence of the male lethality, and the PM a manifestation of the functional mosaicism occurring in females.

Similarly, the majority of individuals with de novo TFE3 variants in our cohort were females (sex ratio female:male was 12:5 (2.4)). The study of X-inactivation on non-cultured fibroblasts was consistent with functional mosaicism in two affected females with PM who harboured random X-inactivation, whereas a third female without PM had skewed X-inactivation. In IP, FDH and CDPX2, most hemizygous males die in utero.

However, there have been reports of surviving males 31–33 with an estimated prevalence around 10% in FDH and IP.32 34 The majority of them are explained by post-zygotic mutations or chromosomal anomalies (Klinefelter syndrome). Non-mosaic males have also been reported in FDH and IP – respectively about 17% and 45% of the affected males harbour a non-mosaic variant.32 35 In our series, males represented 29% of the patients with a de novo TFE3 variant. A mosaic variant was identified in blood for half of them.

None had Klinefelter syndrome. Interestingly, mosaicism was detected in only one out of the two males with PM, and one male with a mosaic variant had no pigmentation anomalies noted on examination. It is still possible that subtle pigmentation anomalies were missed on examination.

Moreover, somatic mosaicism can be difficult to detect. Recent studies have shown that a large proportion of de novo mutations presumed to be germline had in fact occurred as post-zygotic event.36 In the males of this cohort, WES was performed on leucocytes-derived DNA and no other tissue was studied. Therefore, it is possible that a low mosaicism was not detected.

Finally, it is probable than TFE3 mutations account for a significant proportion of patients with HMI. Indeed, in this population, the high frequency of ID, epilepsy, coarse facial features has long been emphasised in the literature.37By its ability to bind the coordinated lysosomal enhancement and regulation (CLEAR) sites in the promotor region of target genes, TFE3 is involved in the control lysosomal biogenesis, autophagy and endocytosis.8 Several patients of the series indeed had clinical and biochemical features that pointed toward an inborn error of metabolism. Lysosomal storage disorder was suspected due to the variable association of coarse facial features (88%), skeletal anomalies (65%) –flat or clubfeet, hyperlordosis, hip dislocation, limitation of elbow extension, genu valgum, scoliosis–, postnatal growth retardation (59%), history of speech or developmental regression (29%) congenital hearing loss (29%), recurrent upper airways s (29%) neonatal liver anomalies such as hepatomegaly and cholestasis (18%), upper airways s (24%), umbilical hernia (18%), sleep apnoea syndrome (6%) and aortic insufficiency (6%).

Other metabolic anomalies observed in the series were obesity, defined in children by body mass index (BMI) (weight/height2) above the WHO curve, present in the oldest patients (76%), neonatal transient hypoglycaemia (12%), and hyperlactataemia (6%). Dysregulation of lipid metabolism, via suppression of thermogenesis and decreased lipolysis, thus leading to increased adipose tissue, was previously observed in adipose-specific TFE3 transgenic mice.38 Similarly to lysosomes, mitochondrias have a key role in cellular metabolism, including autophagy. Recent data demonstrate that mitochondrial and lysosomal metabolisms are interrelated.39 Muscle biopsy, performed in two individuals from this cohort, showed fat and glycogen accumulation, muscular fibre size irregularity, without evidence of mitochondrial dysfunction.

Interestingly in the more recent data, evidences showing that TFE3 plays a role in the regulation of the circadian oscillations of the expression of genes involved in autophagy and lipid metabolism, and that Tfe3 knock-out mice had abnormal circadian behaviour.40 Indeed, in our series, five patients (29%) were noted to have sleep disturbance. This could be due to circadian rhythms alteration. Finally, TFE3 has been shown to be involved in the regulation of innate immune response in macrophages via the FLCN-AMPK signalling axis,41 and of B-lymphocytes activation.42 Along these lines, four patients of the series (24%) had a history of recurrent s, associated with documented neutropenia in one of them.

As shown in table 3, a summary of the frequency of the features observed in the cohort, facial dysmorphism was constant and strikingly similar among the patients. More than two-third had anteverted nares, broad flat nasal bridge, almond-shaped and widely spaced eyes, puffy cheeks and coarse facial features (thick lips and fleshy earlobes). More than half had facial hypertrichosis.

All individuals presented with at least four of the above features. One patient had an extreme facial phenotype of hypertelorism, bifid nose and bilateral cleft lip and palate. Whether these frontonasal dysplasia features may be associated with the TFE3 mutation remains unclear.

No other mutation in known genes was found in Patient 1’s exome sequencing data.View this table:Table 3 Frequency of the clinical features observed in the seriesTFE3 is a highly conserved protein, intolerant to loss of function as supported by data from the GnomAD browser43 (probability of being loss-of-function intolerant (pLI) evaluated at 0.98, observed:expected ratio=0.06) and to missense variants (Z=2.15). Moreover, TFE3 does not, or only in a few tissues, escape X inactivation, suggesting that TFE3 gene dosage is crucial to cell function.44 45 In vitro, Villegas et al recently showed that the absence of either TFE3 exon 3 or 4 resulted in a nuclear gain-of-function Tfe3 allele in ESCs, indicating that both exons 3 and 4 are required for Tfe3 inactivation.3 Nuclear localisation and resistance to differentiation were proved in Tfe3 knock-out (K.O.) ESCs expressing murine Tfe3 alleles (Gln118Pro and Pro185Leu, corresponding to mutations Gln119Pro and Pro186Leu identified in individuals referred to as patients 1 and 2 in this series). Based on the analysis of TFE3 secondary structure,46 indicating that residues 110–215 are predicted to form a domain of two stable alpha helices that might be disrupted by mutations in exons 3 and 4, and the observation of a similar phenotype in patients harbouring mutations in exons 3 and 4, it was suggested that Tfe3 exons 3 and 4 form a Rag binding fold whose structural integrity is indispensable for lysosome-mediated cytoplasmic Tfe3 inactivation.3 In this series, the recurrent mutations Arg117Gln, Leu191Pro and Thr187Met were present in respectively two, two and three patients.

The aminoacid in position 187 was mutated in five patients. In addition, 13 of the described mutations were localised between positions p.184 and p.201. This proximity could account for the absence of obvious genotype–phenotype correlation.

The canonical splice site variant in intron 4 identified in patient 9 might lead to in-frame exon skipping of exon 4. The clinical picture of the patient with this splice site variant perfectly fits with the syndrome described here. As a consequence, we raise the hypothesis of a gain-of-function effect of this variant.In conclusion, de novo mutations in exons 3 and 4 of the X-linked gene TFE3 are responsible for a neurocutaneous disorder with specific and recognisable facial dysmorphism, lysosomal storage disorder-like features and PM.

This series unravels TFE3 as a major gene responsible for HMI and for a rare cause of syndromic ID. Furthermore, we provide clinical and molecular data on a previously unidentified lysosomal storage disorder, in which new insights, especially biochemical features, will probably be investigated further, together with the description of more patients. Further delineation of this phenotype will indeed allow a better understanding of the link between lysosomal signalling and development.

Finally, the evidence for mosaicism in this recently described disorder highlights the importance of considering mosaic variants on next-generation sequencing reports in diagnostic, including for patients without suggestive phenotype..

IntroductionThe mammalian kinesin superfamily proteins (KIFs) are microtubule and ATP-dependent molecular motors, which were first identified in 1985 as axonal transporters in squid and bovine brains.1 Forty-five different kinesin family lasix uk buy member (KIF) genes were identified in the mouse genome so far, 44 of which are present in the human genome. Phylogenetic analysis based on sequence homology between the human and the mouse genome led to the classification of KIF genes into 16 families, from kinesin-1 to kinesin-14B (figure 1).2 The first kinesins discovered belong to the kinesin-1 family (KIF5A, KIF5B and KIF5C), and they form a heterotetramer of two heavy chains and two light chains (KLC1-4).2 KIF genes encode KIFs, a specific class of motor proteins generating intracellular motility by driving directional transport of various cargoes such as organelles, protein complexes and mRNAs along the microtubule system.2 Studies using knockout mouse models by Hirokawa and colleagues significantly contributed to elucidate the roles of kinesins in mammalian physiology. Their role in transport is fundamental to cellular logistics and performance, and the molecular motors are not only effectors of signal transduction cascades but also transport and/or bind to important signal transduction molecules to actively modulate their function.3Phylogenetic tree of mammalian kinesin superfamily genes identified in the human (and mouse) genome and classified in 16 subfamilies (from kinesin 1 to 14B) (adapted from Hirokawa et al 3)." data-icon-position data-hide-link-title="0">Figure 1 Phylogenetic tree of mammalian kinesin superfamily genes identified in the human (and mouse) genome and classified in 16 subfamilies (from kinesin 1 to 14B) (adapted from Hirokawa et al3).The first kinesins were observed in the context of axonal transport in neurons, and a novel disease entity of ‘motor–proteinopathy’ was proposed for the pathogenesis of axonal neuropathies in 2001.4 Due to their role in cellular membrane trafficking, however, kinesins are essential for the functioning of many polar cell types, such as lasix uk buy neurons, epithelial cells, sperm cells or stem cells during organogenesis.

Kinesins also play a fundamental role in cell-cycle dynamics, both during mitotic and meiotic processes. They regulate chromosomal condensation lasix uk buy and alignment, spindle formation, cytokinesis and cell-cycle progression.5 It is estimated that about a dozen kinesins are involved in the cell cycle. Among these, there is a specific subclass of chromokinesins (kinesin 4 and kinesin 10 family) which are able to bind chromosomes.6 Recently, KIFs were discovered to act as microtubule stabilisers (KIF26A and KIF21A) and depolymerisers (KIF2A and KIF2C), activities which are important for both cellular morphogenesis and mammalian development, playing a role in neuronal and axonal morphology and ciliogenesis.7Alterations in motor kinesins are leading to human disease by various pathological mechanisms, including cancer and multifactorial and monogenic disorders.

Variants in 18 out of the 44 human KIF genes were identified to cause monogenic disorders, following different modes of Mendelian inheritance and associated with lasix uk buy a wide spectrum of clinical signs. These range from lethal and multiple to isolated congenital anomalies—including birth defects potentially detectable in the foetal period by current prenatal imaging studies—to postnatally apparent neurodevelopmental disorders, intellectual disability and neurological conditions.We will review the current state of knowledge of the biological processes kinesins are involved in and discuss their emerging role in human disease, particularly in birth defects and congenital anomaly syndromes. Birth defects remain a leading cause of perinatal lethality in industrialised countries.8 Structural anomalies are recognised with increasing reliability during early pregnancy by the use of high-resolution ultrasound technologies, thus raising questions about diagnosis, aetiology, prognosis and recurrence risk, particularly in the presence of more than one anomaly, which most likely indicates a genetic aetiology.

We identify recurrent phenotype patterns caused by alterations in KIF genes, lasix uk buy and we outline the complexity of phenotype–genotype correlations mirroring the processes of intracellular microtubule-mediated transport and movement, in which kinesins play a fundamental role. There are likely many more relationships between the clinical signs and the genetic variants to be identified in the future, and the functional network of kinesins and their role in human disease need to be further elucidated. We propose to introduce the term ‘kinesinopathies’ for this group of conditions, which are phenotypically and genetically overlapping and characterised by the functional lasix uk buy impairment of a specific group of molecular motors.

We hope that their systematic approach leads to a better recognition in clinical practice, as well as in genome-wide sequencing for diagnosis and research, and opens strategies for the future development of molecular therapies.KIF structureAll KIFs have a phylogenetically well-conserved motor domain head, consisting of an ATP-binding motif and a microtubule-binding domain. Depending on the position of the motor domain, kinesins can be subdivided into N-kinesins (amino-terminal motor domain), M-kinesins (middle-region motor domain) and C-kinesins (carboxy-terminal motor domain).2 Most kinesins belong to the N-kinesin subgroup, but members of the kinesin 13A lasix uk buy family (figure 1) belong to the M-kinesin subtype, while KIF1C, KIF2C and KIF3C belong to the C- kinesin subfamily.3 Both N-kinesins and C-kinesins are responsible for plus end and minus end-directed motility, M-kinesins for depolymerisation of microtubules in tubulin molecules. However, there are a few exceptions to this categorisation.9 The motor domain head attaches to the neck, the coiled coil stalk and the tail.

The kinesins’ neck is family-specific and responsible for the direction of motility or regulation of activity. The coiled coil stalk and tail are involved lasix uk buy in kinesin dimerisation and/or interactions with cargoes. Kinesins typically use scaffold proteins and adaptor proteins to bind their cargoes but can sometimes bind the cargo directly.

Scaffolds and adaptors might also have regulatory roles in kinesin-driven intracellular transport, that is, lasix uk buy recognising specific cargoes and regulating their loading and unloading.3Role of KIFs in physiology and diseaseThe application of genome-wide sequencing for gene identification in research or for clinical diagnostic purposes significantly contributes to the identification of KIF candidate genes. Genotype–phenotype correlations in KIF gene-related disorders, together with functional and animal studies, continue to elucidate the complex involvement of KIFs in human developmental pathways and disease. Table 1 summarises the monogenic conditions caused by variants affecting the function of KIF genes.View this table:Table 1 Specific monogenic disorders caused by variants affecting the function of KIF genesView this table:Table 2 Summary of phenotypes and genotypes of KIF149 26 30 31The kinesins’ functions in physiological processes, however, are complex and still incompletely understood, but their role in cell-cycle progression and regulation, including both meiosis and mitosis, in intracellular lasix uk buy trafficking, axonal transport, microtubule activity and ciliogenesis, is increasingly studied.

Figure 2 summarises the clustering of KIF genes according to their functional roles and the phenotypical consequences as identified to date in 32 out of the 44 human kinesin genes.Assignment and clustering of KIF genes to various functions and relation to birth defect or monogenic phenotype groups. Detailed phenotypes are lasix uk buy shown in tables 1 and 3. Cancer and multifactorial conditions are not included.

CNS, central nervous system." data-icon-position data-hide-link-title="0">Figure 2 Assignment and clustering of KIF genes to various functions and relation to birth defect or monogenic phenotype groups. Detailed phenotypes are shown in tables 1 and lasix uk buy 3. Cancer and multifactorial conditions are not included.

CNS, central nervous system.Kinesins play a pivotal lasix uk buy role during early development and organogenesis. Microcephaly is one of the most frequently associated clinical signs, mirroring a defect in the regulation of the final number of neurons during development.10KIF4A is a motor protein that translocates PRC1, a cytokinesis protein, to the ends of the spindle microtubules during mitosis, regulates the PARP1 activity in brain development and the survival of neurons, and is a member of the L1CAM recycling pathway. Variants in lasix uk buy L1CAM cause X-linked isolated and syndromic hydrocephalus.

KIF4A was recently proposed as a candidate gene for hydrocephalus.11KIFs are involved in neuronal branching, and microtubule depolarisation, operated by KIF2A M-kinesin, was suggested to suppress collateral branch extension during brain development, leading to anomalies of cortical development, including agyria and pachygyria, subcortical band heterotopia and corpus callosum anomalies.12Functional disruption of KIF genes in knockout mice often results in embryonic lethality, for example, for Kif18A, Kif10, Kif3A, Kif3B and Kif5B,13–17 highlighting the importance of kinesins in embryonic and foetal development. A study on KIF16B demonstrated that microtubule-based trafficking is responsible for early development and stem cell survival.18 KIF26B is essential in kidney development, contributing to the adhesion of mesenchymal cells to the ureteric bud.3 KIF26A was suggested to play a role in enteric nervous system development, because knockout mice develop a megacolon and enteric nerve hypoplasia,19 and to negatively regulate nociceptive sensation.20A significant number of KIFs play a prominent role in ciliogenesis and cilia function. They regulate cilia length, ciliary assembly/disassembly and can have motile cilia-specific functions.21 Some KIFs, specifically found in primary cilia (PC), lasix uk buy regulate the length of the axoneme and its disassembly when re-entering the cell cycle.KIF7, also a key component of the Hedgehog signalling pathway, is responsible for cilia length regulation through suppression of microtubule polymerisation.7 KIF7 variants cause hydrolethalus, acrocallosal, and Joubert and Al-Gazali-Bakalinova syndromes.22 Kif2A knockout mice have severe brain defects, and KIF2A variants in humans lead to microcephaly because of cell-cycle delay in cellular progenitors resulting from cilia disassembly defects.

KIF24, belonging to the same kinesin 13 family, plays a role in both microtubule depolymerising activity and regulation of the early steps of ciliogenesis. Other PC-related KIFs recently identified are KIF5B, KIF1C and KIF13B, lasix uk buy and a potential role in cilia was hypothesised for KIF11 and KIF14.KIF3 protein complex (KIF3A-KIF3B-KAP3 heterotetramer) is a molecular motor necessary for intraflagellar transport (IFT) but is also involved in ciliogenesis of motile cilia. Kif3a-knockout or Kif3b-knockout mice are prenatally lethal, exhibiting anomalies similar to ciliopathy phenotypes, including the disturbance of left–right body determination.3KIF19A is localised at the tip of motile cilia and performs motor and microtubule-depolymerising activities during IFT.

Kif19a-knockout mice present with hydrocephalus and female infertility, common signs in ciliary defects, due to abnormally elongated cilia with altered motility, lasix uk buy not able to generate proper fluid flow.9Further KIFs, which may have specific roles in motile cilia, are KIF27, KIF9, KIF6 and KIF18B. Regarding the involvement of numerous KIFs in cilia-related processes, it is not surprising that many disorders caused by variants affecting KIF gene function are presenting with anomalies reminiscent of ciliopathies.Kinesin motors have a fundamental role in neuronal function, as they are responsible for the transport of synaptic vesicle precursors and transmitter receptors along axons and dendrites from the neuron body.3 Molecular motor activity as for KIF1A, KIF5 and KIF17 is important for higher brain functions, such as learning and memory through regulation of synaptic transmission.5 Dysfunction can be associated with intellectual disability and global developmental delay (table 1).Impaired function can also result in peripheral neuropathies (KIF5A, KLC2, KIF1A and KIF1B) and ocular motility disorders (KLC2 and KIF21A)23 24 when axon elongation in the peripheral nervous system and optic nerve is affected. KIF5A variants are associated with epileptic phenotypes both in humans and mice25 because the transport of neurotransmitter receptors is disturbed and inhibitory regulation is altered.Due to their role in cell-cycle regulation, kinesins are important in male spermatogenesis and female oogenesis.

They are involved in all steps of spermatogenesis 26 and, based on previous animal studies, they may represent a potential lasix uk buy target to treat male infertility. In female meiosis, 13 KIF genes were studied in animal models. There is some evidence that kinesin expression is vulnerable to maternal ageing lasix uk buy and environmental factors, such as oocyte cryopreservation and alcohol consumption.

It may be promising to expand research in this field in order to clarify the mechanisms and factors contributing to oocyte quality decline.27Many kinesins were extensively studied in the fields of cancer development, progression and therapy. Deregulation of the mitotic kinesins by both overexpression and decreased expression causes cancer progression or can be a prognostic marker in various tumours.28 The cell-permeable small-molecule mitotic inhibitor lasix uk buy monastrol was discovered in 199929 and was shown to arrest cells in mitosis by specifically inhibiting KIF11, a kinesin important for spindle bipolarity. The bipolar mitotic spindle is replaced by a monoastral microtubule array surrounded by a ring of chromosomes, which gave the inhibitor its name.

The mitotic lasix uk buy spindle is now a well-known target of chemotherapy, and inhibitors of the mitotic kinesins KIF11, KIF10 and KIF1C are being studied for this purpose.28 30 The redundancy of some kinesins allows them to escape pharmacological inhibition. For example, in the absence of KIF10, KIF15 is able to replace all of its essential functions in spindle assembly. Cilia-related KIF7, KIF13B and KIF27 are involved in SHh signalling and may be a future target in cancer research.28Some kinesins confer susceptibility to a range of multifactorial, metabolic and neurodegenerative conditions.

KIF13B contributes to the enhancement of endocytosis of lasix uk buy low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor-related protein 1 that is involved in the recognition and internalisation of LDL and factor VIII. Kif13b-knockout mice have hypercholesterolaemia and higher factor VIII serum levels.5 KIF12 is implicated in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes, protecting pancreatic β cells from the oxidative stress caused by nutritional excess.5 Variants in KIF1B or KIF21B confer susceptibility to multiple sclerosis (OMIM %612596, #126200).31 32 KIF5A was associated with Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (OMIM #617921).33 KIF3 complex and KIF17 were recently uncovered to be involved in schizophrenia.34 35 Further studies, however, are needed to clarify the precise role of KIFs in neurodegenerative processes and psychiatric conditions.KIF14 -related birth defects. Lessons learntAdvances in lasix uk buy next-generation sequencing technologies have revolutionised our understanding of Mendelian disorders, including birth defect phenotypes, by sequencing the coding genome (exome) or entire genome at an unprecedented resolution in a comparably short time span.

The technology has been extensively used for gene identification approaches in research for many years, enabling unparalleled genotype–phenotype correlations and the definition of novel pathways of related genes and disorders at an accelerated pace, traditionally focusing on postnatal disorders. Filges and Friedman36 postulated that a number of novel disease genes causing birth defects could be identifiable through the investigation of lethal foetal phenotypes since lasix uk buy they would represent the extreme end of allelic milder and viable postnatal phenotypes with less specific or recognisable anomaly patterns. Based on embryonically or perinatally lethal mouse models (www.informatics.jax.org and www.dmdd.org.uk), it is estimated that knockout variants in about 30% of human protein coding genes may present with a phenotype of early lethality.

The identification of KIF14 loss of function variants in fetuses with a lethal multiple congenital anomaly syndrome and the subsequent description of the allelic postnatal viable phenotype and further functional characterisation of KIF14 in developmental processes are recent examples of how to study those embryonic lethal phenotypes in order to understand the role of genes for which little to nothing is known.Filges et al identified autosomal recessive compound heterozygous loss of function variants in KIF14 using family-based exome sequencing in a recurrent severe lethal phenotype (OMIM #616258). It was the first human phenotype reported due to variants in the human KIF14 gene (figure 3).37 The two affected siblings presented with intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR), oligohydramnios, severe microcephaly, renal lasix uk buy cystic dysplasia or agenesis, genital tract malformations (uterine hypoplasia and vaginal atresia), as well as cerebral and cerebellar hypoplasias with partial or total agenesis of the vermis, arhinencephaly, agenesis of occipital lobes/corpus callosum at second trimester ultrasound scan. Cross-species comparison to the laggard spontaneous mice mutant, characterised by homozygous variants of the Kif14 gene,38 confirmed a phenotypical overlap.

An increased number of binucleated cells in the tissue histology of the two fetuses were in concordance with the key role of KIF14 during mitosis participating in chromosomes’ congression and alignment, as well as in cytokinesis39 and the observation of binucleated cells as a consequence of failed cytokinesis lasix uk buy in mammalian KIF14 knockdown cells. During cytokinesis, PRC1 localises KIF14 at the central spindle and midbody, which in turn recruits citron rho-interacting kinase (CIT) to the midbody. CIT, in lasix uk buy turn, acts as a negative regulator of KIF14 activity.

Knockdown of KIF14 in mammalian cells results in impaired localisation of CIT during mitosis.40Structure of KIF14 and summary of all published KIF14 variants affecting function.10 37 41 42 The N-terminal region (aa 1–356) is important for its interactions with PRC1 and the protein’s localisation at the central spindle and midbody. The kinesin motor domain (aa 358–701) is responsible for the microtubule-dependent ATPase activity. The FHA lasix uk buy domain (aa 825–891).

Stalk and tail region (aa 891–1648) are necessary for the interaction with the protein CRIK (aa 901–1189, red diagonal lines). There are four additional coiled-coil domains lasix uk buy (light blue-coloured areas).61 FHA, forkhead associated. Aa, amino acid." data-icon-position data-hide-link-title="0">Figure 3 Structure of KIF14 and summary of all published KIF14 variants affecting function.10 37 41 42 The N-terminal region (aa 1–356) is important for its interactions with PRC1 and the protein’s localisation at the central spindle and midbody.

The kinesin motor domain (aa 358–701) is responsible for the microtubule-dependent ATPase activity lasix uk buy. The FHA domain (aa 825–891). Stalk and tail region (aa 891–1648) are necessary for the interaction with the protein CRIK (aa lasix uk buy 901–1189, red diagonal lines).

There are four additional coiled-coil domains (light blue-coloured areas).61 FHA, forkhead associated. Aa, amino acid.Filges et al pointed out that KIF14 should be considered a candidate gene for viable postnatal phenotypes, including isolated microcephaly.34 Additional individuals with autosomal recessive variants in KIF14 and isolated primary microcephaly were then described9 41 42 (table 2).Impaired cytokinesis, increased apoptosis and reduced cell motility were confirmed in cells from the described patients, pointing to a new cellular pathway in the pathogenesis of microcephaly.43 Apart from one case with small kidneys with increased echogenicity, none of these 18 patients had associated kidney anomalies. However, a targeted exome sequencing study in 204 unrelated patients with congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary lasix uk buy tract (CAKUT) reported two more cases of renal anomalies, bilateral hypoplasia or agenesis, caused by KIF14 variants.44 Further nine cases had an associated renal phenotype, which ranged from bilateral renal agenesis to cystic or non-cystic renal hypodysplasia.42 Table 2 and figure 3 summarise KIF14 variants and the associated phenotypes.

Loss of function variants more likely lead to multiple congenital anomalies, while hypomorphic variants result in a milder phenotype without renal involvement, although phenotype–genotype correlations remain preliminary for the time being.The phenotypical spectrum ranging from isolated primary microcephaly to congenital anomalies reminiscent of ciliopathy phenotypes suggested a complex role for KIF14 in developmental processes and raised a number of questions about the relationship between its established role in cell division and its possible function in ciliary pathways. Functional studies of absent KIF14 protein in the development of human foetal tissues and mutant zebrafish provided lasix uk buy evidence for similarities and differences between mitotic events occurring during proliferation in the development of both brain and kidney.42 The observation that KIF14-stained midbodies accumulate within the lumen of the branch tips of ureteric buds in human foetal kidneys provided a key clue to better understand the mechanism through which the loss of KIF14 affects both brain and kidney development in humans. It was previously demonstrated that the secretion and accumulation of midbody remnants in the cerebrospinal fluid in mice during the early stages of brain development correspond to the amplification of neural progenitors.45 Kif14 mutant zebrafish phenotypes supported the hypothesis of a potential role for KIF14 in cilia.

In vitro and in vivo analyses suggested that loss of kif14 causes ciliary anomalies through an accumulation lasix uk buy of mitotic cells in ciliated tissues but failed to establish a direct functional link.21 42 Further mechanisms remain to be elucidated. Overexpression of KIF14 in various types of tumours was suggested to be a possible prognostic marker and a potential target for therapeutic purposes.46Kinesinopathies in birth defect phenotypes. Recurrent themesIn the last few years, an increasing number of variants in KIF genes were described to cause isolated as well as multiple congenital anomalies.

There is a huge variability of phenotypes caused by variants even lasix uk buy within the same gene. However, we can identify recurrent clinical signs that should alert the clinician to suspect a KIF gene-related disorder and the molecular geneticist to include KIF genes in multigene-panel and genome-wide sequencing approaches. This will become particularly relevant in prenatal and perinatal medicine, which focuses on the detection of structural anomalies in the fetus and the newborn by using ultrasound and MRI or autopsy when lasix uk buy the outcome is lethal.

We have summarised the predominant and recurrent structural anomalies in kinesinopathies reported so far that would likely become apparent during the foetal period in table 3 and the syndromic disorders in table 1.View this table:Table 3 KIF gene-related structural congenital anomalies recurrently described in prenatal phenotypesSupplemental materialConsistent with the kinesins’ role in the development of the central nervous system (CNS), brain anomalies of various degrees are a frequent clinical sign, particularly microcephaly, but include lissencephaly, polymicrogyria, thinned or agenesis of the corpus callosum, arhinencephaly, cerebral hypoplasia or atrophy, cerebellar hypoplasia or atrophy, brainstem hypoplasia and a molar tooth sign on brain imaging.12 22 37 44 47–51Primary microcephaly can be detected prenatally or at birth12 22 47 48 50 51 and can present as an isolated or syndromic condition as, for example, caused by variants in KIF149 or in KIF11 (microcephaly with or without chorioretinopathy, lymphoedema or mental retardation. OMIM #152950).48KIF7 variants were related to macrocephaly lasix uk buy in the presence of congenital hydrocephalus (hydrolethalus syndrome LS2, OMIM # 614120). Isolated hydrocephalus was reported for KIF4A in a single case.11Foetal akinesia and arthrogryposis (KIF5C12, KIF1434 and KIF26B50) are likely secondary to the neurological compromise of the fetus but can also appear as an early sign of abnormal CNS development, which should prompt specialist CNS sonographic and MRI evaluation of the fetus.Further anomalies of the limbs include camptodactyly (KIF26B50), clubfoot (KIF1A51), rocker-bottom feet (KIF26B50) and congenital lymphoedema of the limbs (dorsa of feet, lower extremities and, rarely, hands) in cases with KIF11 gene mutations.48 In particular, KIF7 gene variants have been related to various anomalies of the hands (tapered fingers, fifth finger clinodactyly, brachydactyly, preaxial or postaxial polydactyly, bifid terminal phalanges of the thumbs, spindle-shaped fingers, clinodactyly and soft tissue webbing) and feet (toe syndactyly, preaxial or postaxial polydactyly, and duplicated halluces).22CAKUT and genital anomalies are reported in various kinesinopathies including renal agenesis or hypoplasia (KIF1437 and KIF1252), ureteral hypoplasia (KIF1437), congenital megabladder (KIF1252) and vesicoureteral reflux (KIF1252), uterine hypoplasia and vaginal atresia (KIF1437) and hypospadias and chordae (KIF16B49).IUGR is recurrently detected (KIF5C12, KIF1437, KIF1053, KIF1554 and KIF2A12) and is particularly relevant when occurring simultaneously with one of the other recurrent clinical signs, indicating a potential syndromic KIF-related disorder.

Oligohydramnios or polyhydramnios is most likely secondary to a primary organ anomaly.There are a few kinesinopathy syndromes that have been specifically reported to be lethal, such as the ciliary phenotype (OMIM #616258), caused by variants in KIF1434, and hydrolethalus syndrome (OMIM #614120), caused by variants in KIF7.22 However, lethality is usually closely related to the specific major anomalies, and it can be hypothesised that such a lethal phenotype will exist for all KIF gene-related disorders.Developmental delay, intellectual disability, seizures, and sensory and motor disturbances of the peripheral nervous system, as well as eye anomalies, such as microphthalmy, optic nerve pallor, fibrosis of extraocular muscles and chorioretinopathy, will escape detection in the foetal period but are reported in postnatal patients.Kinesin pathways in birth defectsFunctional studies of kinesins in birth defects are still sparse, and little is known about their networks and pathways. In order to improve our understanding, we used the Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA Qiagen, Redwood City, California, USA) to visualise and analyse the connections between the 13 kinesin motor proteins associated with structural congenital anomalies (KIF5C, KIF1A, KIF1BP, KIF14, KIF16B, KIF7, KIF4A, KIF11, KIF10, KIF26B, KIF12, lasix uk buy KIF15 and KIF2A) and in up to 10 of each of their most significant downstream proteins. The connections are defined as protein–protein interactions, activation, regulation of binding, expression, localisation, phosphorylation, protein–RNA interactions, molecular cleavage, ubiquitination, protein–DNA interactions, inhibition, translocation and transcription.

Figure 3 displays the lasix uk buy results. We used the software Gephy55 to look for all possible interactions between all proteins of the network and also used the IPA data to retrieve the canonical pathways involved. Figure 4 and online supplementary material, table lasix uk buy 4, summarise the results.

KIF7, KIF14 and KIF12 are located within the same network, and because of multiple connections between themselves and their downstream proteins, it is not surprising that they are all involved in kidney anomalies. IPA data are based on current publications and are therefore subject to bias because proteins that are most interconnected are also most probably those that have been more extensively studied lasix uk buy. However, we consider the KIF genes coding for proteins seeming less important within the network to be strong candidates for future studies of human developmental disorders.IPA of the 13 kinesins known to be involved in birth defects with respect to their position in the cell.

Proteins displayed on the right side of the figure, below the tag ‘other’, are those for which no subcellular location is known. Birth defect-related kinesins and their connection with each other are highlighted in green lasix uk buy. Light blue-coloured downstream proteins are those which are known to cause birth defects when altered.

Yellow-coloured proteins are those involved in neurological disorders overlapping with the clinical features of lasix uk buy kinesinopathies. The legend of the biological function associated with every molecule is displayed on the right. Path Designer by IPA was used for lasix uk buy the figure design.

IPA, Ingenuity Pathway Analysis." data-icon-position data-hide-link-title="0">Figure 4 IPA of the 13 kinesins known to be involved in birth defects with respect to their position in the cell. Proteins displayed on the right side of the figure, below the tag ‘other’, are those for which no subcellular location is known. Birth defect-related kinesins lasix uk buy and their connection with each other are highlighted in green.

Light blue-coloured downstream proteins are those which are known to cause birth defects when altered. Yellow-coloured proteins are those involved in neurological disorders overlapping lasix uk buy with the clinical features of kinesinopathies. The legend of the biological function associated with every molecule is displayed on the right.

Path Designer lasix uk buy by IPA was used for the figure design. IPA, Ingenuity Pathway Analysis.Closing remarks and future perspectivesNovel KIF genes are increasingly identified, and there is a growing body of literature demonstrating the impact of kinesin dysfunction in human disease. We propose to introduce the term kinesinopathies for conditions caused by variants in KIF genes, since recurrent and common functional and lasix uk buy phenotypical themes can be observed.

In analogy to ciliopathies56 and rasopathies,57 the delineation of the clinical, genetic and functional hallmarks of kinesinopathies will be important to better recognise these conditions, to understand the pathomechanisms and to ultimately improve the clinical management of the patients. Previously, the unified view of the phenotype characteristics of ciliary dysfunction allowed a tremendous increase in awareness, both in clinic and research, and the further identification of yet unrecognised ciliary disorders and the genes and proteins involved in their pathogenesis.56Remarkable progress was achieved in assigning function to kinesins through their study in isolated and multiple congenital anomaly phenotypes. They are one large superfamily of molecular motors out of three (kinesins, dyneins and myosins), which is of key importance in several fundamental cellular processes using microtubules as rails for directional anterograde intracellular transport, including its regulation and modulating signal transduction.5 Kinesin motors are most important for the movement lasix uk buy of chromosomes along the spindles during chromosome segregation, regulation of spindle formation, cell division and cytokinesis.

These essential and broad cellular functions are critical for many physiological processes such as neuronal function and survival, some ciliary functions and ciliogenesis, determination of the left/right asymmetry of our body and regulation of organogenesis, thus explaining the impact and emerging recognition of kinesins in embryonic and foetal development. Defects can result in neuropathies, higher brain functions and lasix uk buy structural brain anomalies. Multiple congenital anomalies, including the kidney and urinary tract and limb anomalies, are repeatedly reported.

Microcephaly, which is usually not associated with genes implicated in specific ciliary mechanisms, and CNS anomalies are lasix uk buy the most recurrent clinical signs in both the prenatal and postnatal phenotypes described so far. The discovery of the implication of KIF14 in microcephaly further suggested a possible novel role of other microcephaly proteins in cytokinesis. A number of syndromic kinesinopathies present, however, with phenotype patterns reminiscent of ciliopathies.

So far, however, a direct functional impact was confirmed lasix uk buy in only a few and could not be demonstrated, for example, for KIF14, despite an overlapping clinical pattern. In turn, ciliopathies are a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of conditions themselves. Studying tissue and cell type-specific function and expression may help to further define the specific defects related to the individual aberrant kinesin.The pleiotropic nature of human kinesinopathies, lasix uk buy however, is just emerging, but their study promises to provide important insights into human developmental pathways.

Seemingly unrelated clinical entities are highlighting a common theme. In a relatively short time span, monogenic KIF-related disorders were identified to present with often severe and lethal antenatal anomalies, with multiple or isolated congenital anomalies, neurodevelopmental and neurological disorders, lasix uk buy or an increased susceptibility to multifactorial conditions. We focused on the emerging role of kinesins in structural congenital anomalies because, as illustrated for the KIF14 gene, great potential to decipher allelic viable phenotypes and developmental pathways lies in the study of these human knockout phenotypes at the severe end of the phenotypical spectrum.

Knockout variants in about 30% of human protein coding genes in our genome may present with a phenotype of early lethality, and KIF genes seem to play an important role in such fundamental processes of human development. Identifying and characterising the variants, genes and phenotypes will extend our knowledge on early human development and pathomechanisms, and will ultimately also improve the clinical utility of genome-wide sequencing approaches for lasix uk buy prenatal and postnatal application by our increased ability to interpret loss of function and hypomorphic variants alike. Furthermore, kinesins were extensively studied in cancer research and therapeutic strategies targeting their specific functions, such as the example of monastrol and other inhibitors of the mitotic kinesins may be adopted in the future.

There are likely many more kinesinopathies to be unravelled in the field of birth defects because of their pivotal role in cellular logistics, but their recognition in clinics and research will depend on our ability to identify and characterise the common clinical, molecular and functional themes of these disorders and to use them to improve our understanding of their disease mechanisms.IntroductionIntellectual disability (ID) affects about 3% of individuals worldwide and raises significant issues in terms of diagnostic, management lasix uk buy and genetic counselling. The presence of pigmentation anomalies in a patient with ID represents helpful clinical clues in order to narrow the range of aetiological hypothesis. Hypomelanosis of Ito (HMI, MIM #300337) is an unspecific term encompassing a heterogeneous group of disorders characterised by cutaneous hypopigmented whorls and streaks along Blaschko’s lines and lasix uk buy variable extracutaneous features affecting the musculoskeletal and nervous systems.1 The cutaneous pattern therefore represents a non-specific hallmark of mosaicism in these neurocutaneous conditions.

Genetic mosaicism is due to postzygotic mutations, either chromosomal rearrangements or point mutations, whereas random X inactivation in females leads to functional mosaicism.2 Unravelling the molecular basis of pigmentary mosaicism (PM) is still a challenge due to clinical and genetic heterogeneity, technical difficulties in detecting mosaic mutations by classical sequencing approaches and the complexities of obtaining affected tissue. As part of a collaborative lasix uk buy group, we recently reported de novo mutations in exons 3 and 4 of transcription factor E3 (TFE3) as the cause for HMI in four unrelated individuals, including one male, as well as syndromic ID without pigmentary disorders in a female.3TFE3 belongs to the MITF family of mammalian basic helix–loop–helix zipper transcription factors, together with TFEB and TFEC. All four can form homodimers or heterodimers with each other.4 Embryonic expression of TFE3 orthologues Tfe3a and Tfe3b was demonstrated in the zebrafish in a wide range of tissues.5 TFE3 subcellular localisation plays a crucial role in the regulation of cellular homeostasis and embryonic stem cell (ESC) differentiation.

The phosphorylated TFE3 is retained in the cytoplasm, whereas dephosphorylated protein translocates to the nucleus to promote the transcription of target genes involved in lysosomal biogenesis and autophagy.6 TFE3 relocalisation to the nucleus is driven on various stressors, such as starvation,7 8 DNA damage,9 mitochondrial damage,10 Golgi stress11 and pathogens12 in an mTORC1-dependent manner, and oxidative stress13 or cadmium exposition14 in an mTORC1-independent manner. Moreover, lysosomal signalling-induced nucleocytoplasmic redistribution of TFE3 lasix uk buy is essential to the regulation of ESC renewal.3 15 By restricting nuclear localisation and activity of Tfe3, lysosome activity, the tumour suppressor protein folliculin and the Ragulator protein complex enable the exit from pluripotency and therefore drive differentiation. Conversely, enforced nuclear Tfe3 enables ESCs to withstand differentiation.15 In humans, TFE3 mutations have long been known in cancer.

Gene fusions by translocations or other chromosomal rearragements involving TFE3 and five partner genes have indeed been reported to lasix uk buy occur in a subset of renal cell carcinomas (RCCs), referred to as ‘TFE-fusion RCC’, and, more rarely, to lung sarcoma and perivascular epithelioid cell tumours.16 Beyond these data on TFE3 function, by the report of a series of 17 individuals harbouring de novo mutations in exons 3 and 4 of TFE3, we emphasise their phenotype and bring additional clinical insight toward the recognition of this novel developmental disorder.ResultsWe describe a series of 17 patients carrying a de novo mutation in TFE3, 5 of them being previously published with limited clinical information.3 Twelve were females and five were males. Their age ranged from 12 months to 22 years. Five were referred for HMI, five for syndromic ID and five for suspicion of storage disorder.Clinical lasix uk buy dataThe clinical features are summarised in table 1.

Additional information can be found in online supplementary data 1.Supplemental materialView this table:Table 1 Clinical and molecular features of the 17 patients with an TFE3 mutationNeonatal course was remarkable for nine patients. History of jaundice, hepatomegaly or feeding difficulties was reported for three patients each, hypoglycaemia for two and cholestasis for one. All these features were transient.Developmental delay, usually severe and noticeable from the first months of lasix uk buy life, was a constant feature in all the individuals.

Only 6 patients were able to walk at the time of the study, whereas 11 were still unable to walk. All patients were non-verbal, except for two older patients who could speak lasix uk buy a few words. Neurological examination was abnormal in 12 individuals and consisted in truncal hypotonia, associated with lower limb spasticity (6 individuals) or ataxia (2 adults).

Behavioural issues such as autistic features and sleeping disturbance were lasix uk buy noted for 11 patients. Eleven patients developed epilepsy, onset in the first decade and characterised as intractable in three of them. Brain MRI was normal in 10 individuals and abnormal in 6 patients (hydrocephaly, short corpus callosum, Dandy-Walker malformation, arachnoid cyst, periventricular white matter lesions, delayed myelination and cerebral atrophy).

The sensory anomaly was congenital hearing loss (5 patients), and ophtalmological anomalies (10 patients) consisted of strabismus, hyperopia, retinal degeneration, depigmented macule on the iris, oculomotor apraxia or impaired vision of cortical origin.Facial dysmorphism shared among lasix uk buy the patients consisted in coarseness, flat nasal bridge, short nose with anteverted nares, widely spaced eyes, almond-shaped eyes, thick lips, facial hypertrichosis, fleshy earlobe, and full and pink cheeks (figure 1). Twelve patients had pigmentation anomalies, located on Blaschko’s lines for 10 of them (figure 2). One was diagnosed lasix uk buy at 4 years old with histiocytofibroma.

Moderate to severe postnatal growth retardation affected 10 patients, who had a length between −2.0 and −4.5 SD. Obesity affected lasix uk buy 13 individuals. Skeletal anomalies were frequent (11 individuals) and consisted of flat or clubfeet, hyperlordosis, scoliosis, hip dislocation, limitation of elbow extension and genu valgum.

Recurrent s of the upper lasix uk buy airways were noted in five patients. One had a documented neutropenia. Early-onset chronic interstitial lung disease was reported in two patients.

Nail clubbing was noted lasix uk buy in two individuals. Visceral malformations consisted of congenital heart defect (left ventricle dilatation, aortic insufficiency and patent ductus arteriosus) in three patients, umbilical hernia in three individuals, lateral semicircular canal dysplasia, posterior plagiocephaly, sleep apnoea syndrome, anteriorly displaced anus and hypospadias in one individual each.Facial phenotypes of seven patients. (A–C) Patient lasix uk buy 5, aged 6 months (A,B) and 3 years (C).

(D) Patient 8, aged 5 years. (E,F) Patient lasix uk buy 2, aged 5 and 20 years. (G–I) Patient 3, aged 1 year (G) and 3 years (H,I).

(J,K) Patient 13, aged 22 years. (L–O) Patient 6, aged 8 months (L), 20 months (M) and lasix uk buy 3 years (N,O). (P,Q) Patient 10 aged 22 years." data-icon-position data-hide-link-title="0">Figure 1 Facial phenotypes of seven patients.

(A–C) Patient 5, aged 6 months (A,B) lasix uk buy and 3 years (C). (D) Patient 8, aged 5 years. (E,F) Patient lasix uk buy 2, aged 5 and 20 years.

(G–I) Patient 3, aged 1 year (G) and 3 years (H,I). (J,K) Patient 13, aged 22 years. (L–O) Patient 6, aged 8 lasix uk buy months (L), 20 months (M) and 3 years (N,O).

(P,Q) Patient 10 aged 22 years.Cutaneous features. (A) Patient 3 lasix uk buy. Umbilical hernia, widely spaced nipples and hypopigmentation on the left side of the abdomen.

(B) Patient lasix uk buy 17. Hypotonia, umbilical hernia and widely spaced nipples. (C) Patient lasix uk buy 8.

Blaschko’s lines on the back. (D) Patient 6. Hypopigmentation on the left side lasix uk buy of the abdomen.

(E) Patient 7. Blaschko’s lines on the abdomen and right side of the trunk lasix uk buy. (F) Patient 13.

Hand. Note clubbing of thumbnail and loose skin. (G) Patient 17.

Blaschko’s lines on the left side of the abdomen. (H) Patient 17. Hand.

Note tapering fingers and wrinkled skin. (I) Patient 1. Linear hypopigmentation on the back.

(J) Patient 6. Blaschko’s lines on the back. (K) Patient 3.

Blachko’s lines on the right lower limb. (L) Patient 6. Blaschko’s lines on the right lower limb.

(M,N) Patient 7. Linear hyperpigmentation on the lower limbs. (O) Patient 11.

Blaschko’s lines on the back." data-icon-position data-hide-link-title="0">Figure 2 Cutaneous features. (A) Patient 3. Umbilical hernia, widely spaced nipples and hypopigmentation on the left side of the abdomen.

(B) Patient 17. Hypotonia, umbilical hernia and widely spaced nipples. (C) Patient 8.

Blaschko’s lines on the back. (D) Patient 6. Hypopigmentation on the left side of the abdomen.

(E) Patient 7. Blaschko’s lines on the abdomen and right side of the trunk. (F) Patient 13.

Hand. Note clubbing of thumbnail and loose skin. (G) Patient 17.

Blaschko’s lines on the left side of the abdomen. (H) Patient 17. Hand.

Note tapering fingers and wrinkled skin. (I) Patient 1. Linear hypopigmentation on the back.

(J) Patient 6. Blaschko’s lines on the back. (K) Patient 3.

Blachko’s lines on the right lower limb. (L) Patient 6. Blaschko’s lines on the right lower limb.

(M,N) Patient 7. Linear hyperpigmentation on the lower limbs. (O) Patient 11.

Blaschko’s lines on the back.Molecular resultsThe characteristics of the 13 different de novo TFE3 variants identified in the 17 unrelated individuals are summarised in table 2. All but one were missense variants, affecting nine different aminoacids. One was a splice donor mutation.

This mutation was reported a few weeks ago in a patient with a similar phenotype.21 Two variants were localised in exon 3 and 11 in exon 4 (figure 3). All were absent from public databases and were predicted to be pathogenic by prediction softwares. TFE3 protein and localisation of the missense variants identified.

In bold are variants identified in two patients. In bold and underlined is the variant identified in three patients. In green is the intronic variant." data-icon-position data-hide-link-title="0">Figure 3 TFE3 protein and localisation of the missense variants identified.

In bold are variants identified in two patients. In bold and underlined is the variant identified in three patients. In green is the intronic variant.View this table:Table 2 Molecular data of the 13 de novo TFE3 mutations.

Characteristics, inheritance, frequency in the public database GnomAD, prediction scores regarding pathogenicity (Polyphen, Grantham and CADD (Combined Annotation Dependant Depletion) scores). The transcript is NM_006521.5The putative mosaicism was assessed through X inactivation studies in females and analysis of the exome sequencing data in males, by checking the total number of reads covering the variant, as well as the number of reads supporting the presence of the variant (table 1). Allele frequencies in females were always consistent with a constitutional heterozygous mutation.

X inactivation was skewed in blood of the female patients 1, 3 and 7 and in fibroblasts of Patient 2. X inactivation was random in fibroblasts of Patient 1 and 3. Regarding the male patients, the mutation was identified in 65% of the reads for Patient 17% and 88% of the reads for Patient 15 (106/120).

No mosaicism was detected in the blood of Patient 13, 14 and 16 despite the presence of pigmentary manifestations in Patient 16.DiscussionTFE3 functions in signalling of the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex 1 (mTORC1). The PIK3-AKT-mTOR pathway plays a role in the regulation of cellular growth, proliferation, survival and metabolism. Overactivation of the mTOR signalling is responsible for neurocutaneous disorders and cancers.22 Somatic mutations in TSC1, TSC2, AKT3, PIK3CA and MTOR are responsible for focal cortical dysplasia type II (MIM607341),23–25 hemimegalencephaly26 and megalencephaly.27 The phenotype ascribed to germline TSC1/TSC2, PTEN, MTOR and PK3R2/AKT3/CCND2 mutations – respectively in tuberous sclerosis (TS, MIM 191100), Cowden syndrome (CS, MIM 158350), Smith-Kingsmore syndrome (MIM 616638) and Megalencephaly, Polymicrogyria, Polydactyly and Hydrocephalus syndrome 1, 2 and 3 (MPPH1/2/3, MIM 603387/615939/615938) - is characterised by the association of ID, epilepsy, brain malformations and skin tumours.

Similarly, all the individuals harbouring a de novo TFE3 mutation reported in the series presented with a severe neurodevelopmental disorder. Delayed psychomotor development was constant. The youngest patient to acquire independent walking was 30 months old, and more than half of the patients aged over 18 months (57%), did not acquire walk at the last examination.

Conversely to patients with MTOR, AKT3 or PTEN mutation, none of the patients described in this series had macrocephaly. Brain imaging was abnormal in 35% of the patients. Hydrocephaly and corpus callosum dysgenesis, identified in respectively three and one individual, were previously reported in patients with mosaic gain of function MTOR mutations.28 29 One patient had surgery to remove an early-onset histiocytofibroma.

However, no other skin tumour was reported, either in this patient or in any other from the series.Pigmentation anomalies, along Blaschko’s lines or, for one patient, as a large hyperpigmented area, were present in a majority of the individuals (71%) in the series, including 40% of the males and 83% of the females. PM along Blaschko’s lines is highly suggestive of genetic mosaicism.30 Genomic mosaicism is defined by the presence of at least two cell populations with different genotypes in an individual originating from one zygote and mainly occurs through post-zygotic event, whereas females can present with functional (epigenetics) mosaicism due to X inactivation.2 PM is a classical feature of X-linked male-lethal genodermatosis, such as incontinentia pigmenti (IP, MIM #308300), focal dermal hypoplasia (FDH, MIM #305600), chondrodysplasia punctuata type 2 (Conradi-Hunermann-Happle syndrome, CDPX2, MIM #302960) and linear skin defects with multiple congenital anomalies (LSDMCA1, MIM #309801). In these conditions, the overwhelming predominance of affected females is a consequence of the male lethality, and the PM a manifestation of the functional mosaicism occurring in females.

Similarly, the majority of individuals with de novo TFE3 variants in our cohort were females (sex ratio female:male was 12:5 (2.4)). The study of X-inactivation on non-cultured fibroblasts was consistent with functional mosaicism in two affected females with PM who harboured random X-inactivation, whereas a third female without PM had skewed X-inactivation. In IP, FDH and CDPX2, most hemizygous males die in utero.

However, there have been reports of surviving males 31–33 with an estimated prevalence around 10% in FDH and IP.32 34 The majority of them are explained by post-zygotic mutations or chromosomal anomalies (Klinefelter syndrome). Non-mosaic males have also been reported in FDH and IP – respectively about 17% and 45% of the affected males harbour a non-mosaic variant.32 35 In our series, males represented 29% of the patients with a de novo TFE3 variant. A mosaic variant was identified in blood for half of them.

None had Klinefelter syndrome. Interestingly, mosaicism was detected in only one out of the two males with PM, and one male with a mosaic variant had no pigmentation anomalies noted on examination. It is still possible that subtle pigmentation anomalies were missed on examination.

Moreover, somatic mosaicism can be difficult to detect. Recent studies have shown that a large proportion of de novo mutations presumed to be germline had in fact occurred as post-zygotic event.36 In the males of this cohort, WES was performed on leucocytes-derived DNA and no other tissue was studied. Therefore, it is possible that a low mosaicism was not detected.

Finally, it is probable than TFE3 mutations account for a significant proportion of patients with HMI. Indeed, in this population, the high frequency of ID, epilepsy, coarse facial features has long been emphasised in the literature.37By its ability to bind the coordinated lysosomal enhancement and regulation (CLEAR) sites in the promotor region of target genes, TFE3 is involved in the control lysosomal biogenesis, autophagy and endocytosis.8 Several patients of the series indeed had clinical and biochemical features that pointed toward an inborn error of metabolism. Lysosomal storage disorder was suspected due to the variable association of coarse facial features (88%), skeletal anomalies (65%) –flat or clubfeet, hyperlordosis, hip dislocation, limitation of elbow extension, genu valgum, scoliosis–, postnatal growth retardation (59%), history of speech or developmental regression (29%) congenital hearing loss (29%), recurrent upper airways s (29%) neonatal liver anomalies such as hepatomegaly and cholestasis (18%), upper airways s (24%), umbilical hernia (18%), sleep apnoea syndrome (6%) and aortic insufficiency (6%).

Other metabolic anomalies observed in the series were obesity, defined in children by body mass index (BMI) (weight/height2) above the WHO curve, present in the oldest patients (76%), neonatal transient hypoglycaemia (12%), and hyperlactataemia (6%). Dysregulation of lipid metabolism, via suppression of thermogenesis and decreased lipolysis, thus leading to increased adipose tissue, was previously observed in adipose-specific TFE3 transgenic mice.38 Similarly to lysosomes, mitochondrias have a key role in cellular metabolism, including autophagy. Recent data demonstrate that mitochondrial and lysosomal metabolisms are interrelated.39 Muscle biopsy, performed in two individuals from this cohort, showed fat and glycogen accumulation, muscular fibre size irregularity, without evidence of mitochondrial dysfunction.

Interestingly in the more recent data, evidences showing that TFE3 plays a role in the regulation of the circadian oscillations of the expression of genes involved in autophagy and lipid metabolism, and that Tfe3 knock-out mice had abnormal circadian behaviour.40 Indeed, in our series, five patients (29%) were noted to have sleep disturbance. This could be due to circadian rhythms alteration. Finally, TFE3 has been shown to be involved in the regulation of innate immune response in macrophages via the FLCN-AMPK signalling axis,41 and of B-lymphocytes activation.42 Along these lines, four patients of the series (24%) had a history of recurrent s, associated with documented neutropenia in one of them.

As shown in table 3, a summary of the frequency of the features observed in the cohort, facial dysmorphism was constant and strikingly similar among the patients. More than two-third had anteverted nares, broad flat nasal bridge, almond-shaped and widely spaced eyes, puffy cheeks and coarse facial features (thick lips and fleshy earlobes). More than half had facial hypertrichosis.

All individuals presented with at least four of the above features. One patient had an extreme facial phenotype of hypertelorism, bifid nose and bilateral cleft lip and palate. Whether these frontonasal dysplasia features may be associated with the TFE3 mutation remains unclear.

No other mutation in known genes was found in Patient 1’s exome sequencing data.View this table:Table 3 Frequency of the clinical features observed in the seriesTFE3 is a highly conserved protein, intolerant to loss of function as supported by data from the GnomAD browser43 (probability of being loss-of-function intolerant (pLI) evaluated at 0.98, observed:expected ratio=0.06) and to missense variants (Z=2.15). Moreover, TFE3 does not, or only in a few tissues, escape X inactivation, suggesting that TFE3 gene dosage is crucial to cell function.44 45 In vitro, Villegas et al recently showed that the absence of either TFE3 exon 3 or 4 resulted in a nuclear gain-of-function Tfe3 allele in ESCs, indicating that both exons 3 and 4 are required for Tfe3 inactivation.3 Nuclear localisation and resistance to differentiation were proved in Tfe3 knock-out (K.O.) ESCs expressing murine Tfe3 alleles (Gln118Pro and Pro185Leu, corresponding to mutations Gln119Pro and Pro186Leu identified in individuals referred to as patients 1 and 2 in this series). Based on the analysis of TFE3 secondary structure,46 indicating that residues 110–215 are predicted to form a domain of two stable alpha helices that might be disrupted by mutations in exons 3 and 4, and the observation of a similar phenotype in patients harbouring mutations in exons 3 and 4, it was suggested that Tfe3 exons 3 and 4 form a Rag binding fold whose structural integrity is indispensable for lysosome-mediated cytoplasmic Tfe3 inactivation.3 In this series, the recurrent mutations Arg117Gln, Leu191Pro and Thr187Met were present in respectively two, two and three patients.

The aminoacid in position 187 was mutated in five patients. In addition, 13 of the described mutations were localised between positions p.184 and p.201. This proximity could account for the absence of obvious genotype–phenotype correlation.

The canonical splice site variant in intron 4 identified in patient 9 might lead to in-frame exon skipping of exon 4. The clinical picture of the patient with this splice site variant perfectly fits with the syndrome described here. As a consequence, we raise the hypothesis of a gain-of-function effect of this variant.In conclusion, de novo mutations in exons 3 and 4 of the X-linked gene TFE3 are responsible for a neurocutaneous disorder with specific and recognisable facial dysmorphism, lysosomal storage disorder-like features and PM.

This series unravels TFE3 as a major gene responsible for HMI and for a rare cause of syndromic ID. Furthermore, we provide clinical and molecular data on a previously unidentified lysosomal storage disorder, in which new insights, especially biochemical features, will probably be investigated further, together with the description of more patients. Further delineation of this phenotype will indeed allow a better understanding of the link between lysosomal signalling and development.

Finally, the evidence for mosaicism in this recently described disorder highlights the importance of considering mosaic variants on next-generation sequencing reports in diagnostic, including for patients without suggestive phenotype..

Page updated: 01.06.2010 21:00