Propecia cost singapore

Propecia cost singapore

Throughout the hair loss treatment propecia, InnovaCare Health, which operates Medicare Advantage and Medicaid plans in Puerto Rico—as well as in Florida—has propecia cost singapore been working closely with providers and goodrx propecia government leaders to address the propecia’ spread, including doing home delivery of everything from medicines to food for its members in the territory. CEO Dr. Richard Shinto spoke with propecia cost singapore Modern Healthcare Managing Editor Matthew Weinstock. The following is an edited transcript.MH.

What’s the state of play in Puerto Rico right now?. Shinto. I think the government did a very good job during the first few months of the propecia. They closed down the island.

No ships were allowed to come in. Tourism was stopped. The reason they did that was they don’t have a deep enough healthcare system to have ventilators and all the necessary means to protect all the residents of the island.So the governor mandated across-the-board curfews and shut everything down. They did a very good job of really suppressing the .Our numbers are very low.

I think maybe we broke close to 400 deaths total. There’s maybe 24,000 positive cases right now. The last numbers I saw, (there were) about 400 people in the hospital. Really, that’s more of a (recent) surge.

It was even lower than that, but when everything started to open up, especially bars, all of a sudden there was another surge.Currently, the stay-at-home policy is a curfew from 10 at night until five in the morning. No alcohol (sold) after 7 p.m. On Sundays, everybody has to stay indoors unless it’s just for grocery shopping or going to the pharmacy. Again, the government is putting a lot of pressure on everybody and the difference between Puerto Rico and a lot of other places (in the U.S.), they actually do implement it and they actually do fine you.

The fines can be up to $500 if you’re not wearing a mask and you wander around the streets in Puerto Rico.MH. Can you talk about your experience working with the government in Puerto Rico versus in Florida?. Shinto. One of the things Puerto Rico has done a very good job of is creating alignment.

There’s alignment between the health plans, the providers, the hospitals and the government. So when we go to D.C. Or we speak on behalf of the island, it’s usually one voice.MH. Working with providers, you advanced payments to doctors and hospitals in the early stages of the propecia.

That’s continuing, right?. €¨Shinto. Yes. To date we’ve paid out somewhere over $160 million of advance payments to providers, both hospitals and physicians.

Many of our specialists are on fee-for-service, so we did quick calculations on what our average pay to them was. From that, we were able to advance pay them.It’s interesting about disasters and the number of them that hit the island. We learned this after Hurricane Maria—the physicians needed the income and they’re not going to be able to submit encounter data.On the propecia, we advance paid the doctors before we shut down the offices. We knew they needed income so they could continue to take care of the beneficiaries and members.MH.

Can you talk about the work you’re doing with at-home delivery of medications and over-the-counter supplies?. Shinto. As you practice in the States, you think about mail order and you think about chain pharmacies. That doesn’t really work here.

So over the years, we got into home delivery. We do home delivery for almost everything—your pharmacy, all your over-the-counter (supplies). Even prior to the propecia, we were already starting home delivery of food.Puerto Rico is a great testing ground. When people started to get all their medications, all their (personal protective equipment)—if they wanted masks or they needed antiseptics for their hands—they just (place an order) on the website and it gets delivered within 48 hours.

Then we started delivering food and then people didn’t want it pre-cooked. They wanted to make their own. Then we started offering groceries, so you can go onto our sites and get whatever you need.We’ve built it into our benefit design so that members can get an iPhone, because then the app is already loaded—allowing them to order all their over-the-counter (supplies) or if it’s connected into the pharmacy, they can get home delivery there as well. We believe the future of healthcare has to be in that space of delivery.MH.

What challenges have you had, if any, building up a supply chain?. Shinto. One thing we learned after (natural) disasters is you’ve got to be ahead of the supply chain. I remember all the water we had ordered after (Hurricane Maria) and the generators, but FEMA came in and took control and it bothered us that we had a great supply chain.

We had pre-ordered a lot, but then the (U.S.) government comes and takes over.When hair loss treatment came, we again preplanned and we went to the supply chain. We were able to move 3,500 employees out of the offices, into their homes, in less than a week. We had a lot of supplies like computers and modems for people who needed it. We did a great job on pre-ordering PPE and hair loss treatment testing.

But again, the (U.S.) government came in and confiscated everything. Then, we had to struggle to get the masks, or we had to go to China. So that created some problems. Even today, because of the limited amount of reagent on the island, the Puerto Rican government has taken control of testing.MH.

So PPE was taken from the island and brought back to the mainland?. Shinto. It wasn’t allowed to ship to the island. Even the hair loss treatment testing, which we had pre-bought.

Being a physician and thinking about looking ahead … we needed to have, masks, gowns and gloves. We went after those and then the testing and we were able to buy a lot of testing, but then they would get stopped at the ports. The government would take over in the States and then redirect it someplace else.Our country is now more than six months into the worst public health crisis we have known in over a century. More than 6 million confirmed hair loss treatment cases and 190,000-plus documented fatalities later, what have we learned?.

Truth is, we have acquired an enormous amount of actionable knowledge about the propecia—how to test for and better treat it, how to prevent its spread and how to protect ourselves against it. But gaining knowledge and applying it successfully are not the same thing. Large health systems are in a unique position to share some broad core lessons that can serve us all well going forward. Take care of our healthcare heroes.

Even our doctors and nurses who served in the military or trained in emergency medicine never imagined having to put their own lives and livelihoods on hold for such extended periods. Even after the propecia has passed, thousands of them may experience a unique form of professional and personal post-traumatic stress disorder. We must recognize and address this by rotating them off the front lines and expanding the healthcare workforce. Recognize that disparities are a matter of life and death.

Health disparities grounded in race and ethnicity have been subject to policy discussions for decades. The disadvantaged face a perfect storm. More likely to be exposed to the propecia, but less likely to have access to testing and treatment. More likely to have underlying conditions, but less likely to cope with the financial impacts of the propecia.

And perhaps soon—less likely to be able to access the treatments that afford some level of protection. Here comes the flu … It is always important for everyone, most certainly caregivers, to get a flu vaccination. But this year individuals must be accountable for their symptoms like never before. Stay home if you are sick and call your doctor right away if you have symptoms (telehealth calls are easier and more available than ever).

Remember. Flu symptoms and hair loss treatment symptoms can be very similar. €¦ and sometime soon, a hair loss treatment. Our nation’s handling of the propecia to date must not presage our handling of a treatment.

The approval process must be science-driven and inspire public confidence. Distribution must initially prioritize essential workers. As more widespread vaccinations are possible, no one should have to go without due to access or affordability challenges. End the “mask confusion.” As a nation, it took many years and multimillion-dollar public-awareness campaigns for us to wear seat belts and stop smoking in public places.

Those were long-term appeals, but we do not have the luxury of time right now. The science has evolved, and there’s more evidence than ever before that wearing a mask is effective. In fact, wearing a mask must be a universally accepted norm.Quick, reliable testing. We cannot afford an on-again, off-again commitment to hair loss treatment testing.

For the foreseeable future, it is an imperative. But real challenges remain. While identifying positive cases has obvious benefits, waiting five to 10 days for results almost nullifies the capacity to contain spread. We need a consistent focus on deploying convenient tests that produce reliable, rapid results and actively driving their use, particularly among high-risk populations, in hot spots and for those exposed to a known positive.Prepare to be screened.

For the foreseeable future, and perhaps indefinitely, screening in healthcare facilities and other public venues will be the new normal. When you come to a hospital or clinic, expect to have your temperature taken and answer screening questions. These are for everyone’s safety—patients and caregivers.No healthcare professional needs to be reminded of the seriousness of what lies ahead. Let’s take what we’ve learned, be ready and willing to adapt—and build a new resolve to defeat this propecia together..

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Globally, mental health care mainly continues to be provided in psychiatric hospitals, and rights abuses and propecia s coercive practices remain all too common, according to the buy propecia online UN agency. €˜A more holistic approach’ The guidance recommends that mental health provision should be located in the community and include support for daily living, such as facilitating access to accommodation, as well as education and employment services. €œThis comprehensive new guidance provides a strong argument for a much faster transition from mental health services that use coercion and focus almost exclusively on the use of medication to manage symptoms of mental health conditions, to a more holistic approach that takes into account the specific circumstances and wishes of the individual and offers a variety propecia s of approaches for treatment and support,” said Dr.

Michelle Funk of the Department of Mental Health and Substance Use, who led the development of the guidance. Severe abuses continue WHO estimated that governments currently spend less than two per cent of their overall health budgets on mental health. This expenditure is mainly allocated to psychiatric hospitals, except in high-income countries propecia s where the figure is around 43 per cent.

The guidance promotes services that are person-centred and grounded in a human rights-based approach, as recommended under WHO’s Mental Health Action Plan 2020-2030, endorsed last month. WHO pointed out that although countries have increasingly sought to reform their laws, policies and services regarding mental health care, following adoption of the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities in 2006, few have made progress propecia s in meeting the changes required by international human rights standards. Severe human rights abuses and coercive practices are still far too common across countries, the agency said.

Examples include forced admission and forced treatment, as well as manual, physical and chemical restraint, unsanitary living conditions, and physical and verbal abuse. Good practices propecia s showcased The new guidance outlines what is required in areas such as mental health law, service delivery, financing and workforce development so that mental health services comply with the disability rights treaty. It contains examples of community-based mental health services from countries such as Brazil, India, Kenya, Myanmar, New Zealand, Norway and the United Kingdom which have demonstrated good practices, for example in non-coercion, community inclusion and respecting people’s right to make decisions about their treatment and life.

The services propecia s highlighted include crisis support, mental health services provided within general hospitals, outreach services, supported living approaches and support provided by peer groups. Cost comparisons indicate that they provide good outcomes and are preferred by users. They also can be provided at comparable cost to mainstream health services.

€œTransformation of mental health service provision must, however, be accompanied by significant changes in the social sector”, said Gerard Quinn, UN Special Rapporteur on the Rights of Persons propecia s with Disabilities. “Until that happens, the discrimination that prevents people with mental health conditions from leading full and productive lives will continue.”At 32 million doses, Africa accounts for less than one per cent of the more than 2.1 billion doses administered globally. Just two per cent of the continent’s nearly 1.3 billion people have received one dose, and only 9.4 million Africans are fully vaccinated.

€˜Do or propecia s die’ for doses “It’s do or die on dose sharing for Africa,” said Dr Matshidiso Moeti, WHO Regional Director for Africa. The WHO’s reminder that 225 million doses of treatment are needed urgently on the continent comes as hair loss s increased there for the third consecutive week. Africa’s 54 countries have registered nearly five million hair loss treatment s to date and numbers increased by nearly 20 per cent - to more than 88 000 - in the week ending 6 June propecia s.

Third wave looms “As we close in on five million cases and a third wave in Africa looms, many of our most vulnerable people remain dangerously exposed to hair loss treatment”, warned Dr Moeti. €œtreatments have been proven to prevent cases and deaths, so countries that can, must urgently share hair loss treatments.” According to WHO’s latest situation update, the propecia “is trending upwards in 10 African countries”. Four nations have seen a 30 propecia s per cent increase in cases in the past seven days, compared with the previous week.

Most of propecia generic price the new cases were in Egypt, South Africa, Tunisia, Uganda and Zambia and over half were in nine southern African countries. treatments have become “increasingly scarce”, the UN health agency said, adding that at the current rate of delivery, propecia s only seven African nations will meet the goal of immunizing one in 10 people by September. European contrast The development came as the WHO announced on Thursday that for the first time in Europe since last August, deaths from hair loss treatment had fallen below 10,000 in a week.

In a regular update, the UN health agency noted that cases, hospitalizations and deaths have decreased in the region for two consecutive months. A total of 368,000 new cases were reported in the last propecia s seven days, which is a fifth of the weekly cases reported during Europe’s recent peak in April this year, said Dr. Hans Kluge, WHO Regional Director for Europe.

He noted propecia s that the European Region had seen 55 million confirmed cases of hair loss treatment and 1.2 million deaths, which is around a third of the global caseload. treatment roll-out More than 400 million doses of hair loss treatments have been administered in the last six months, Dr Kluge noted, meaning that 30 per cent of Europeans have received at least one treatment dose and 17 per cent have been fully immunised. “Vaccination coverage is far from sufficient to protect the (European) region from a resurgence”, the WHO official explained.

€œThe distance propecia s to go before reaching at least 80 per cent coverage of the adult population, is still considerable.” Public health measures and vaccination...is the way out of this propecia -- Dr. KlugePeople over 70 were 800 times more at risk of severe disease or death from the hair loss, he continued, insisting that it was an “urgent priority” to continue to protect the elderly, people with comorbidities and frontline workers who “remain unprotected” in a number of European countries. €œWith increasing social gatherings, greater population mobility, and large festivals and sports tournaments taking place in the coming days and weeks, WHO-Europe calls for caution”, the WHO official added.

Widespread propecia s community transmission continues, Dr. Kluge continued, adding that the new Delta hair loss variant which shows increased transmissibility “is poised to take hold”, while many vulnerable people over 60 remain unprotected. Highlighting the parallels with last summer when s rose in younger people before moving into older age groups, the WHO official urged European countries to avoid “a devastating resurgence, lockdowns and loss of life” during propecia s the warmer months.

Public health measures “A combination of public health measures and vaccination – not one or the other - is the way out of this propecia,” Dr Kluge insisted. To encourage people to protect themselves and others from hair loss, WHO-Europe and UNICEF Europe and Central Asia have launched a joint campaign with some key do’s and don’ts. €œIf you propecia s choose to travel, do it responsibly,” Dr.

Kluge said. €œBe conscious of the risks. Apply common sense and don’t jeopardize hard-earned gains.

Remember. Wash your hands frequently, keep a distance, choose open settings and wear a mask. Avoid the three Cs.

Settings that are ‘closed’, ‘confined’ or ‘crowded’, will put you at higher risk.” IMF/Jeff MooreMembers of the public browse a book stall in London after hair loss treatment restrictions were lifted..

Globally, mental health care mainly continues to be propecia cost singapore provided in psychiatric hospitals, and rights abuses and coercive practices remain all too common, according to the UN agency. €˜A more holistic approach’ The guidance recommends that mental health provision should be located in the community and include support for daily living, such as facilitating access to accommodation, as well as education and employment services. €œThis comprehensive new guidance provides a strong argument for a much faster transition propecia cost singapore from mental health services that use coercion and focus almost exclusively on the use of medication to manage symptoms of mental health conditions, to a more holistic approach that takes into account the specific circumstances and wishes of the individual and offers a variety of approaches for treatment and support,” said Dr.

Michelle Funk of the Department of Mental Health and Substance Use, who led the development of the guidance. Severe abuses continue WHO estimated that governments currently spend less than two per cent of their overall health budgets on mental health. This expenditure is mainly allocated to psychiatric hospitals, except in high-income countries propecia cost singapore where the figure is around 43 per cent.

The guidance promotes services that are person-centred and grounded in a human rights-based approach, as recommended under WHO’s Mental Health Action Plan 2020-2030, endorsed last month. WHO pointed out that although countries have increasingly sought to reform their laws, policies and services regarding mental health care, following adoption of the UN Convention on the propecia cost singapore Rights of Persons with Disabilities in 2006, few have made progress in meeting the changes required by international human rights standards. Severe human rights abuses and coercive practices are still far too common across countries, the agency said.

Examples include forced admission and forced treatment, as well as manual, physical and chemical restraint, unsanitary living conditions, and physical and verbal abuse. Good practices showcased The new guidance outlines propecia cost singapore what is required in areas such as mental health law, service delivery, financing and workforce development so that mental health services comply with the disability rights treaty. It contains examples of community-based mental health services from countries such as Brazil, India, Kenya, Myanmar, New Zealand, Norway and the United Kingdom which have demonstrated good practices, for example in non-coercion, community inclusion and respecting people’s right to make decisions about their treatment and life.

The services highlighted include crisis support, mental health propecia cost singapore services provided within general hospitals, outreach services, supported living approaches and support provided by peer groups. Cost comparisons indicate that they provide good outcomes and are preferred by users. They also can be provided at comparable cost to mainstream health services.

€œTransformation of mental health service provision must, however, be accompanied by significant changes in the social sector”, said Gerard propecia cost singapore Quinn, UN Special Rapporteur on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. “Until that happens, the discrimination that prevents people with mental health conditions from leading full and productive lives will continue.”At 32 million doses, Africa accounts for less than one per cent of the more than 2.1 billion doses administered globally. Just two per cent of the continent’s nearly 1.3 billion people have received one dose, and only 9.4 million Africans are fully vaccinated.

€˜Do or die’ for doses “It’s do or die on dose sharing for propecia cost singapore Africa,” said Dr Matshidiso Moeti, WHO Regional Director for Africa. The WHO’s reminder that 225 million doses of treatment are needed urgently on the continent comes as hair loss s increased there for the third consecutive week. Africa’s 54 countries have registered nearly five million hair loss treatment s to date and numbers increased by nearly 20 per propecia cost singapore cent - to more than 88 000 - in the week ending 6 June.

Third wave looms “As we close in on five million cases and a third wave in Africa looms, many of our most vulnerable people remain dangerously exposed to hair loss treatment”, warned Dr Moeti. €œtreatments have been proven to prevent cases and deaths, so countries that can, must urgently share hair loss treatments.” According to WHO’s latest situation update, the propecia “is trending upwards in 10 African countries”. Four nations have propecia cost singapore seen a 30 per cent increase in cases in the past seven days, compared with the previous week.

Most of the new cases were in Egypt, South Africa, Tunisia, Uganda and Zambia and over half were in nine southern African countries. treatments have become “increasingly scarce”, the UN health agency said, adding that at the current rate of delivery, only seven African nations will meet the goal of propecia cost singapore immunizing one in 10 people by September. European contrast The development came as the WHO announced on Thursday that for the first time in Europe since last August, deaths from hair loss treatment had fallen below 10,000 in a week.

In a regular update, the UN health agency noted that cases, hospitalizations and deaths have decreased in the region for two consecutive months. A total of 368,000 new cases were reported in the last seven days, which is a fifth of the weekly cases reported during Europe’s recent peak in propecia cost singapore April this year, said Dr. Hans Kluge, WHO Regional Director for Europe.

He noted propecia cost singapore that the European Region had seen 55 million confirmed cases of hair loss treatment and 1.2 million deaths, which is around a third of the global caseload. treatment roll-out More than 400 million doses of hair loss treatments have been administered in the last six months, Dr Kluge noted, meaning that 30 per cent of Europeans have received at least one treatment dose and 17 per cent have been fully immunised. “Vaccination coverage is far from sufficient to protect the (European) region from a resurgence”, the WHO official explained.

€œThe distance to go before reaching at least 80 per cent coverage of the adult population, is still considerable.” Public health measures and vaccination...is the way out of this propecia propecia cost singapore -- Dr. KlugePeople over 70 were 800 times more at risk of severe disease or death from the hair loss, he continued, insisting that it was an “urgent priority” to continue to protect the elderly, people with comorbidities and frontline workers who “remain unprotected” in a number of European countries. €œWith increasing social gatherings, greater population mobility, and large festivals and sports tournaments taking place in the coming days and weeks, WHO-Europe calls for caution”, the WHO official added.

Widespread community transmission continues, propecia cost singapore Dr. Kluge continued, adding that the new Delta hair loss variant which shows increased transmissibility “is poised to take hold”, while many vulnerable people over 60 remain unprotected. Highlighting the parallels with last summer when s rose in younger people before moving into older age groups, the WHO official urged European countries to avoid “a devastating resurgence, propecia cost singapore lockdowns and loss of life” during the warmer months.

Public health measures “A combination of public health measures and vaccination – not one or the other - is the way out of this propecia,” Dr Kluge insisted. To encourage people to protect themselves and others from hair loss, WHO-Europe and UNICEF Europe and Central Asia have launched a joint campaign with some key do’s and don’ts. €œIf you choose to travel, do it responsibly,” Dr propecia cost singapore.

Kluge said. €œBe conscious of the risks propecia cost singapore. Apply common sense and don’t jeopardize hard-earned gains.

Remember. Wash your hands frequently, keep a distance, choose propecia cost singapore open settings and wear a mask. Avoid the three Cs.

Settings that are ‘closed’, ‘confined’ or ‘crowded’, will put you at higher risk.” IMF/Jeff MooreMembers of the public browse a book stall in London after hair loss treatment restrictions were lifted..

What if I miss a dose?

If you miss a dose, take it as soon as you can. If you do not remember until the next day, take only that day's dose. Do not take double or extra doses.

Propecia before and after photos

As flu season creeps up on the Northern Hemisphere, cold and flu relief Order zithromax for chlamydia medications propecia before and after photos will inevitably fly off store shelves. A natural remedy that shoppers might reach for is elderberry, a small, blackish-purple fruit that companies turn into syrups, lozenges and gummies. Though therapeutic uses of the berry date back centuries, Michael Macknin, a pediatrician at propecia before and after photos the Cleveland Clinic, hadn’t heard of using elderberry to treat the flu until a patient’s mother asked him about it. Some industry-sponsored research claims that the herbal remedy could cut the length of the symptoms by up to four days.

For a comparison, Tamiflu, an FDA-approved treatment, only reduces flu duration by about propecia before and after photos a single day. €œI said, 'Gee, if that’s really true [about elderberry], it would be a huge benefit,'” Macknin says. But the effectiveness and safety of propecia before and after photos elderberry is still fairly unclear. Unlike the over-the-counter medicines at your local pharmacy, elderberry hasn't been through rigorous FDA testing and approval.

However, Macknin and his team recently published a study in the Journal of General Internal Medicine, which found that elderberry treatments did nothing for flu patients. This prompts a need for further studies into the remedy — work that unfortunately stands a low chance propecia before and after photos of happening in the future, Macknin says. Looking For ProofElderberries are full of chemicals that could be good for your health. Like similar fruits, the propecia before and after photos berries contain high levels of antioxidants, compounds that shut down reactions in our bodies that damage cells.

But whether or not elderberry's properties also help immune systems fend off a propecia is murky. There are only a handful of studies that propecia before and after photos have examined if elderberries reduced the severity or duration of the flu. And though some of the work prior to Macknin’s was well-designed and supported this herbal remedy as a helpful flu aid, at least some — and potentially all — of those studies were funded by elderberry treatment manufacturers.Macknin says an elderberry supplement company provided his team with their products and a placebo version for free, but that the company wasn’t involved in the research beyond that. Macknin's study is the largest one conducted on elderberry to date, with 87 influenza propecia before and after photos patients completing the entire treatment course.

Participants in the study were also welcome to take Tamiflu, for ethical reasons, as the team didn’t want to exclude anyone from taking a proven flu therapy. Additionally, each participant took home either a bottle of elderberry syrup or the placebo with instructions on when and how to take it. The research team called participants every day for a symptom check and to remind them to take their medication.By chance, it turned out that a higher percentage of the patients given elderberry syrup had gotten their flu shot and also chose to take Tamiflu propecia before and after photos. Since the vaccination can reduce the severity of in recipients who still come down with the flu, the study coincidentally operated in favor of those who took the herbal remedy, Macknin says.

Those patients could propecia before and after photos have dealt with a shorter, less-intense illness because of the Tamiflu and vaccination. €œEverything was stacked to have it turn out better [for the elderberry group],” Macknin says, “and it turned out the same.” The researchers found no difference in illness duration or severity between the elderberry and placebo groups. While analyzing the data, the team also found that those on the herbal treatment might propecia before and after photos have actually fared worse than those on the placebo. The potential for this intervention to actually harm instead of help influenza patients explains why Macknin thinks the therapy needs further research.But, don't expect that work to happen any time soon.

Researchers are faced with a number of challenges when it comes to propecia before and after photos studying the efficacy of herbal remedies. For starters, there's little financial incentive to investigate if they actually work. Plant products are challenging to patent, making them less lucrative prospects for pharmaceutical companies or research organizations to investigate. Additionally, investigations that try and prove a proposed therapy as an effective drug — like the one Macknin propecia before and after photos and his team accomplished — are expensive, Macknin says.

Those projects need FDA oversight and additional paperwork, components that drive up study costs. €œIt’s extraordinarily expensive and there’s no money in it for anybody,” propecia before and after photos Macknin says.Talk To Your DoctorUltimately, research on elderberry therapies for flu patients is a mixed bag, and deserves more attention from scientists. However, if you still want to discuss elderberry treatments for the flu with your doctor, that’s a conversation you should feel comfortable having, says Erica McIntyre, an expert focused on health and environmental psychology in the School of Public Health at the University of Technology Sydney. Navigating what research says about propecia before and after photos a particular herbal medicine is challenging for patients and health practitioners alike.

The process is made more complex by the range of similar-sounding products on the market that lack standardized ingredients, McIntyre says. But when doctors judge or shame patients propecia before and after photos for asking about non-conventional healthcare interventions, the response can distance people and push them closer to potentially unproven treatments. Even worse, those individuals might start to keep their herbal remedies a secret. €œIt is that fear about being judged for use of that medication,” McIntyre says, that drives up to 50 percent of people taking herbal treatments to withhold that information from healthcare practitioners.

That’s a dangerous choice, as some herbal and traditional medications can interact and cause health problems.If a physician shames someone for asking about alternative medicines, it’s likely propecia before and after photos time to find a new doctor, McIntyre says. Look for someone who will listen to your concerns — whether it's that you feel traditional treatments haven’t worked for you, or that you didn’t like the side effects, the two common reasons people pursue herbal treatments in the first place. €œYou’re not necessarily looking for a doctor that will let you do whatever you want,” McIntyre says, “but that they actually consider you as a patient, your treatment choices and your treatment priorities, and communicate in a way that’s supportive.” And if a doctor suggests that you avoid a treatment you’re interested in, ask propecia before and after photos why. They generally have a good reason, McIntyre says.For now, know that even if your doctor doesn’t support you taking elderberry, there are other proven preventative measures that are worth your while — like the flu shot.

Anyone six months or older should get it, Macknin says, and stick to the protocols we’re used to following to prevent hair loss treatment s, like social distancing, propecia before and after photos mask-wearing and hand-washing. Those measures also help prevent flu transmission, too — something, so far, no elderberry supplement package can claim.The yearly influenza season threatens to make the hair loss treatment propecia doubly deadly, but I believe that this isn’t inevitable.There are two commonly given treatments – the pneumococcal treatment and the Hib treatment – that protect against bacterial pneumonias. These bacteria complicate both influenza and hair loss treatment, often leading to death. My examination propecia before and after photos of disease trends and vaccination rates leads me to believe that broader use of the pneumococcal and Hib treatments could guard against the worst effects of a hair loss treatment illness.I am an immunologist and physiologist interested in the effects of combined s on immunity.

I have reached my insight by juxtaposing two seemingly unrelated puzzles. Infants and children get hair loss, the propecia propecia before and after photos that causes hair loss treatment, but very rarely become hospitalized or die. And case numbers and death rates from hair loss treatment began varying greatly from nation to nation and city to city even before lockdowns began. I wondered why.One night propecia before and after photos I woke up with a possible answer.

Vaccination rates. Most children, beginning at age two propecia before and after photos months, are vaccinated against numerous diseases. Adults less so. And, both infant and adult vaccination rates vary widely across the world.

Could differences in the propecia before and after photos rates of vaccination against one or more diseases account for differences in hair loss treatment risks?. As someone who had previously investigated other propecias such as the Great Flu propecia of 1918-19 and AIDS, and who has worked with treatments, I had a strong background for tracking down the relevant data to test my hypothesis.Pneumococcal Vaccination Rates Correlate With Lower hair loss treatment Cases and DeathsI gathered national and some local data on vaccination rates against influenza, polio, measles-mumps-rubella (MMR), diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP), tuberculosis (BCG), pneumococci and Haemophilus influenzae type B (Hib). I correlated them with hair loss treatment case rates and death rates for 24 nations that had experienced their hair loss treatment outbreaks at about propecia before and after photos the same time. I controlled for factors such as percentage of the population who were obese, diabetic or elderly.I found that only pneumococcal treatments afforded statistically significant protection against hair loss treatment.

Nations such as Spain, Italy, Belgium, Brazil, Peru and Chile that have the highest hair loss treatment rates per million have the poorest pneumococcal vaccination propecia before and after photos rates among both infants and adults. Nations with the lowest rates of hair loss treatment – Japan, Korea, Denmark, Australia and New Zealand – have the highest rates of pneumococcal vaccination among both infants and adults.A recent preprint study (not yet peer-reviewed) from researchers at the Mayo Clinic has also reported very strong associations between pneumococcal vaccination and protection against hair loss treatment. This is especially true propecia before and after photos among minority patients who are bearing the brunt of the hair loss propecia. The report also suggests that other treatments, or combinations of treatments, such as Hib and MMR may also provide protection.These results are important because in the U.S., childhood vaccination against pneumococci – which protects against Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteria – varies by state from 74% to 92%.

Although the CDC recommends that all adults 18-64 in high risk groups for hair loss treatment and all adults over the age of 65 get a pneumococcal vaccination, only 23% of high-risk adults and 64% of those over the age of 65 do so.Similarly, although the CDC recommends at all infants and some high-risk adults be vaccinated against Haemophilus influenzae type B (Hib), only 80.7% of children in the U.S. And a handful of immunologically compromised propecia before and after photos adults have been. Pneumococcal and Hib vaccination rates are significantly lower in minority populations in the U.S. And in countries that have been hit harder by hair loss treatment than the U.S.Based on these data, I advocate universal pneumococcal and Hib vaccination among children, at-risk adults and all adults over 65 to prevent serious propecia before and after photos hair loss treatment disease.Left.

Combined rates of childhood and adult (over 65) pneumococcal vaccination (out of a possible 200). Right. Cases (per million) population of hair loss treatment at about 90 days into the propecia for 24 nations. Nations with high pneumococcal vaccination rates have low hair loss treatment case rates.

(Credit. CC BY-SA)How Pneumococcal Vaccination Protects Against hair loss treatmentProtection against serious hair loss treatment disease by pneumococcal and Hib treatments makes sense for several reasons. First, recent studies reveal that the majority of hospitalized hair loss treatment patients, and in some studies nearly all, are infected with streptococci, which causes pneumococcal pneumonias, Hib or other pneumonia-causing bacteria. Pneumococcal and Hib vaccinations should protect hair loss patients from these s and thus significantly cut the risk of serious pneumonia.I also found that pneumococcal, Hib and possibly rubella treatments may confer specific protection against the hair loss propecia that causes hair loss treatment by means of “molecular mimicry.”Molecular mimicry occurs when the immune system thinks one microbe looks like another.

In this case, proteins found in pneumococcal treatments and, to a lesser degree, ones found in Hib and rubella treatments as well look like several proteins produced by the hair loss propecia.Two of these proteins found in pneumococcal treatments mimic the spike and membrane proteins that permit the propecia to infect cells. This suggests pneumococcal vaccination may prevent hair loss . Two other mimics are the nucleoprotein and replicase that control propecia replication. These proteins are made after viral , in which case pneumococcal vaccination may control, but not prevent, hair loss replication.Either way, these treatments may provide proxy protection against hair loss that we can implement right now, even before we have a specific propecia treatment.

Such protection may not be complete. People might still suffer a weakened version of hair loss treatment but, like most infants and children, be protected against the worst effects of the .Fighting Influenza-related Pneumonias During the hair loss treatment propeciaWhile the specific protection these other treatments confer against hair loss treatment has not yet been tested in a clinical trial, I advocate broader implementation of pneumococcal and Hib vaccination for one additional, well-validated reason.Pneumococcal and Hib pneumonias – both caused by bacteria – are the major causes of death following viral influenza. The influenza propecia rarely causes death directly. Most often, the propecia makes the lungs more susceptible to bacterial pneumonias, which are deadly.

Dozens of studies around the world have demonstrated that increasing rates of pneumococcal and Hib vaccination dramatically lowers influenza-related pneumonias.Similar studies demonstrate that the price of using these treatments is balanced by savings due to lower rates of influenza-related hospitalizations, intensive care unit admissions and deaths. In the context of hair loss treatment, lowering rates of influenza-related hospitalizations and ICU admissions would free up resources to fight the hair loss, independent of any effect these treatments might have on hair loss itself. In my opinion, that is a winning scenario.In short, we need not wait for a hair loss treatment to slow down hair loss treatment.I believe that we can and should act now by fighting the hair loss with all the tools at our disposal, including influenza, Hib, pneumococcal and perhaps rubella vaccinations.Preventing pneumococcal and Hib complications of influenza and hair loss treatment, and perhaps proxy-vaccinating against hair loss itself, helps everyone. Administering these already available and well-tested pneumococcal and Hib treatments to people will save money by freeing up hospital beds and ICUs.

It will also improve public health by reducing the spread of multiple s and boost the economy by nurturing a healthier population.Robert Root-Bernstein is a Professor of Physiology at Michigan State University. This article was originally published on The Conversation under a Creative Commons liscense Read the original here..

As flu season http://mcgrawleague.net/order-zithromax-for-chlamydia/ creeps up on the Northern propecia cost singapore Hemisphere, cold and flu relief medications will inevitably fly off store shelves. A natural remedy that shoppers might reach for is elderberry, a small, blackish-purple fruit that companies turn into syrups, lozenges and gummies. Though therapeutic uses of the berry date back centuries, Michael Macknin, a pediatrician at the Cleveland Clinic, hadn’t propecia cost singapore heard of using elderberry to treat the flu until a patient’s mother asked him about it.

Some industry-sponsored research claims that the herbal remedy could cut the length of the symptoms by up to four days. For a comparison, Tamiflu, an FDA-approved treatment, only reduces flu duration by propecia cost singapore about a single day. €œI said, 'Gee, if that’s really true [about elderberry], it would be a huge benefit,'” Macknin says.

But the effectiveness and propecia cost singapore safety of elderberry is still fairly unclear. Unlike the over-the-counter medicines at your local pharmacy, elderberry hasn't been through rigorous FDA testing and approval. However, Macknin and his team recently published a study in the Journal of General Internal Medicine, which found that elderberry treatments did nothing for flu patients.

This prompts a need for further studies into the remedy — work that unfortunately stands propecia cost singapore a low chance of happening in the future, Macknin says. Looking For ProofElderberries are full of chemicals that could be good for your health. Like similar fruits, the berries contain high levels of antioxidants, compounds that shut down reactions in our propecia cost singapore bodies that damage cells.

But whether or not elderberry's properties also help immune systems fend off a propecia is murky. There are only a handful propecia cost singapore of studies that have examined if elderberries reduced the severity or duration of the flu. And though some of the work prior to Macknin’s was well-designed and supported this herbal remedy as a helpful flu aid, at least some — and potentially all — of those studies were funded by elderberry treatment manufacturers.Macknin says an elderberry supplement company provided his team with their products and a placebo version for free, but that the company wasn’t involved in the research beyond that.

Macknin's study is the largest one propecia cost singapore conducted on elderberry to date, with 87 influenza patients completing the entire treatment course. Participants in the study were also welcome to take Tamiflu, for ethical reasons, as the team didn’t want to exclude anyone from taking a proven flu therapy. Additionally, each participant took home either a bottle of elderberry syrup or the placebo with instructions on when and how to take it.

The research propecia cost singapore team called participants every day for a symptom check and to remind them to take their medication.By chance, it turned out that a higher percentage of the patients given elderberry syrup had gotten their flu shot and also chose to take Tamiflu. Since the vaccination can reduce the severity of in recipients who still come down with the flu, the study coincidentally operated in favor of those who took the herbal remedy, Macknin says. Those patients could have dealt with a shorter, less-intense illness because propecia cost singapore of the Tamiflu and vaccination.

€œEverything was stacked to have it turn out better [for the elderberry group],” Macknin says, “and it turned out the same.” The researchers found no difference in illness duration or severity between the elderberry and placebo groups. While analyzing propecia cost singapore the data, the team also found that those on the herbal treatment might have actually fared worse than those on the placebo. The potential for this intervention to actually harm instead of help influenza patients explains why Macknin thinks the therapy needs further research.But, don't expect that work to happen any time soon.

Researchers are faced with a number of challenges when it comes to studying the efficacy propecia cost singapore of herbal remedies. For starters, there's little financial incentive to investigate if they actually work. Plant products are challenging to patent, making them less lucrative prospects for pharmaceutical companies or research organizations to investigate.

Additionally, investigations that try and prove a proposed therapy as an effective drug — like the one Macknin and his team propecia cost singapore accomplished — are expensive, Macknin says. Those projects need FDA oversight and additional paperwork, components that drive up study costs. €œIt’s extraordinarily expensive and there’s no money in it for anybody,” Macknin says.Talk To Your DoctorUltimately, research on elderberry therapies for flu propecia cost singapore patients is a mixed bag, and deserves more attention from scientists.

However, if you still want to discuss elderberry treatments for the flu with your doctor, that’s a conversation you should feel comfortable having, says Erica McIntyre, an expert focused on health and environmental psychology in the School of Public Health at the University of Technology Sydney. Navigating what propecia cost singapore research says about a particular herbal medicine is challenging for patients and health practitioners alike. The process is made more complex by the range of similar-sounding products on the market that lack standardized ingredients, McIntyre says.

But when doctors judge or shame patients for asking about non-conventional healthcare interventions, the response can distance people and push them closer to potentially unproven treatments propecia cost singapore. Even worse, those individuals might start to keep their herbal remedies a secret. €œIt is that fear about being judged for use of that medication,” McIntyre says, that drives up to 50 percent of people taking herbal treatments to withhold that information from healthcare practitioners.

That’s a dangerous choice, as some herbal and traditional medications can interact and cause health problems.If a physician shames someone for asking about alternative medicines, it’s likely time propecia cost singapore to find a new doctor, McIntyre says. Look for someone who will listen to your concerns — whether it's that you feel traditional treatments haven’t worked for you, or that you didn’t like the side effects, the two common reasons people pursue herbal treatments in the first place. €œYou’re not propecia cost singapore necessarily looking for a doctor that will let you do whatever you want,” McIntyre says, “but that they actually consider you as a patient, your treatment choices and your treatment priorities, and communicate in a way that’s supportive.” And if a doctor suggests that you avoid a treatment you’re interested in, ask why.

They generally have a good reason, McIntyre says.For now, know that even if your doctor doesn’t support you taking elderberry, there are other proven preventative measures that are worth your while — like the flu shot. Anyone six months or older should get it, Macknin says, and stick to the protocols we’re used to following to prevent propecia cost singapore hair loss treatment s, like social distancing, mask-wearing and hand-washing. Those measures also help prevent flu transmission, too — something, so far, no elderberry supplement package can claim.The yearly influenza season threatens to make the hair loss treatment propecia doubly deadly, but I believe that this isn’t inevitable.There are two commonly given treatments – the pneumococcal treatment and the Hib treatment – that protect against bacterial pneumonias.

These bacteria complicate both influenza and hair loss treatment, often leading to death. My examination of disease trends and vaccination rates leads me to believe that broader use of the pneumococcal and Hib treatments could guard against the worst effects of a hair loss treatment illness.I am an immunologist and physiologist interested in the effects propecia cost singapore of combined s on immunity. I have reached my insight by juxtaposing two seemingly unrelated puzzles.

Infants and children get hair loss, the propecia propecia cost singapore that causes hair loss treatment, but very rarely become hospitalized or die. And case numbers and death rates from hair loss treatment began varying greatly from nation to nation and city to city even before lockdowns began. I wondered propecia cost singapore why.One night I woke up with a possible answer.

Vaccination rates. Most children, beginning at age propecia cost singapore two months, are vaccinated against numerous diseases. Adults less so.

And, both infant and adult vaccination rates vary widely across the world. Could differences in the rates of vaccination propecia cost singapore against one or more diseases account for differences in hair loss treatment risks?. As someone who had previously investigated other propecias such as the Great Flu propecia of 1918-19 and AIDS, and who has worked with treatments, I had a strong background for tracking down the relevant data to test my hypothesis.Pneumococcal Vaccination Rates Correlate With Lower hair loss treatment Cases and DeathsI gathered national and some local data on vaccination rates against influenza, polio, measles-mumps-rubella (MMR), diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP), tuberculosis (BCG), pneumococci and Haemophilus influenzae type B (Hib).

I correlated them with hair loss treatment case rates and death propecia cost singapore rates for 24 nations that had experienced their hair loss treatment outbreaks at about the same time. I controlled for factors such as percentage of the population who were obese, diabetic or elderly.I found that only pneumococcal treatments afforded statistically significant protection against hair loss treatment. Nations such as propecia cost singapore Spain, Italy, Belgium, Brazil, Peru and Chile that have the highest hair loss treatment rates per million have the poorest pneumococcal vaccination rates among both infants and adults.

Nations with the lowest rates of hair loss treatment – Japan, Korea, Denmark, Australia and New Zealand – have the highest rates of pneumococcal vaccination among both infants and adults.A recent preprint study (not yet peer-reviewed) from researchers at the Mayo Clinic has also reported very strong associations between pneumococcal vaccination and protection against hair loss treatment. This is especially true among minority patients who are bearing the brunt of the hair loss propecia propecia cost singapore. The report also suggests that other treatments, or combinations of treatments, such as Hib and MMR may also provide protection.These results are important because in the U.S., childhood vaccination against pneumococci – which protects against Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteria – varies by state from 74% to 92%.

Although the CDC recommends that all adults 18-64 in high risk groups for hair loss treatment and all adults over the age of 65 get a pneumococcal vaccination, only 23% of high-risk adults and 64% of those over the age of 65 do so.Similarly, although the CDC recommends at all infants and some high-risk adults be vaccinated against Haemophilus influenzae type B (Hib), only 80.7% of children in the U.S. And a handful of immunologically compromised adults have been propecia cost singapore. Pneumococcal and Hib vaccination rates are significantly lower in minority populations in the U.S.

And in countries that have been hit harder by hair loss treatment than the U.S.Based on these data, I propecia cost singapore advocate universal pneumococcal and Hib vaccination among children, at-risk adults and all adults over 65 to prevent serious hair loss treatment disease.Left. Combined rates of childhood and adult (over 65) pneumococcal vaccination (out of a possible 200). Right.

Cases (per million) population of hair loss treatment at about 90 days into the propecia for 24 nations. Nations with high pneumococcal vaccination rates have low hair loss treatment case rates. (Credit.

CC BY-SA)How Pneumococcal Vaccination Protects Against hair loss treatmentProtection against serious hair loss treatment disease by pneumococcal and Hib treatments makes sense for several reasons. First, recent studies reveal that the majority of hospitalized hair loss treatment patients, and in some studies nearly all, are infected with streptococci, which causes pneumococcal pneumonias, Hib or other pneumonia-causing bacteria. Pneumococcal and Hib vaccinations should protect hair loss patients from these s and thus significantly cut the risk of serious pneumonia.I also found that pneumococcal, Hib and possibly rubella treatments may confer specific protection against the hair loss propecia that causes hair loss treatment by means of “molecular mimicry.”Molecular mimicry occurs when the immune system thinks one microbe looks like another.

In this case, proteins found in pneumococcal treatments and, to a lesser degree, ones found in Hib and rubella treatments as well look like several proteins produced by the hair loss propecia.Two of these proteins found in pneumococcal treatments mimic the spike and membrane proteins that permit the propecia to infect cells. This suggests pneumococcal vaccination may prevent hair loss . Two other mimics are the nucleoprotein and replicase that control propecia replication.

These proteins are made after viral , in which case pneumococcal vaccination may control, but not prevent, hair loss replication.Either way, these treatments may provide proxy protection against hair loss that we can implement right now, even before we have a specific propecia treatment. Such protection may not be complete. People might still suffer a weakened version of hair loss treatment but, like most infants and children, be protected against the worst effects of the .Fighting Influenza-related Pneumonias During the hair loss treatment propeciaWhile the specific protection these other treatments confer against hair loss treatment has not yet been tested in a clinical trial, I advocate broader implementation of pneumococcal and Hib vaccination for one additional, well-validated reason.Pneumococcal and Hib pneumonias – both caused by bacteria – are the major causes of death following viral influenza.

The influenza propecia rarely causes death directly. Most often, the propecia makes the lungs more susceptible to bacterial pneumonias, which are deadly. Dozens of studies around the world have demonstrated that increasing rates of pneumococcal and Hib vaccination dramatically lowers influenza-related pneumonias.Similar studies demonstrate that the price of using these treatments is balanced by savings due to lower rates of influenza-related hospitalizations, intensive care unit admissions and deaths.

In the context of hair loss treatment, lowering rates of influenza-related hospitalizations and ICU admissions would free up resources to fight the hair loss, independent of any effect these treatments might have on hair loss itself. In my opinion, that is a winning scenario.In short, we need not wait for a hair loss treatment to slow down hair loss treatment.I believe that we can and should act now by fighting the hair loss with all the tools at our disposal, including influenza, Hib, pneumococcal and perhaps rubella vaccinations.Preventing pneumococcal and Hib complications of influenza and hair loss treatment, and perhaps proxy-vaccinating against hair loss itself, helps everyone. Administering these already available and well-tested pneumococcal and Hib treatments to people will save money by freeing up hospital beds and ICUs.

It will also improve public health by reducing the spread of multiple s and boost the economy by nurturing a healthier population.Robert Root-Bernstein is a Professor of Physiology at Michigan State University. This article was originally published on The Conversation under a Creative Commons liscense Read the original here..

Propecia side effects percentage

How to propecia side effects percentage cite this article:Singh OP. Psychiatry research in India. Closing the research propecia side effects percentage gap. Indian J Psychiatry 2020;62:615-6Research is an important aspect of the growth and development of medical science. Research in India in general and medical research in particular propecia side effects percentage is always being criticized for lack of innovation and originality required for the delivery of health services suitable to Indian conditions.

Even the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) which is a centrally funded frontier organization for conducting medical research couldn't avert criticism. It has been criticized heavily for not producing quality research papers which are pioneering, ground breaking, or pragmatic solutions for health issues plaguing India. In the words of a leading daily, The ICMR could not even list one practical application of its hundreds of research papers published in various national and international research journals which helped cure any disease, or diagnose it with better accuracy or in less time, or even one new basic, applied or clinical research or innovation that opened a new propecia side effects percentage frontier of scientific knowledge.[1]This clearly indicates that the health research output of ICMR is not up to the mark and is not commensurate with the magnitude of the disease burden in India. According to the 12th Plan Report, the country contributes to a fifth of the world's share of diseases. The research conducted elsewhere may not be generalized to the Indian population owing to differences in biology, health-care systems, propecia side effects percentage health practices, culture, and socioeconomic standards.

Questions which are pertinent and specific to the Indian context may not be answered and will remain understudied. One of the vital elements in improving this situation is the need for relevant research base that would equip policymakers to take informed health policy decisions.The Parliamentary Standing Committee on Health and Family Welfare in the 100th report on Demand for Grants (2017–2018) of the Department of Health Research observed that “the biomedical research output needs to be augmented substantially to cater to the health challenges faced by the country.”[1]Among the various reasons, lack of fund, infrastructure, and resources is the prime cause which is glaringly evident from the inadequate budget allocation for biomedical research. While ICMR has a budget of propecia side effects percentage 232 million dollars per year on health research, it is zilch in comparison to the annual budget expenditure of the National Institute of Health, USA, on biomedical research which is 32 billion dollars.The lacuna of quality research is not merely due to lack of funds. There are other important issues which need to be considered and sorted out to end the status quo. Some of the factors which need our immediate attention are:Lack of research training and teachingImproper allocation of research facilitiesLack of information about research work happening globallyLack of promotion, motivation, commitment, and passion in the field of researchClinicians being overburdened with patientsLack of collaboration between medical colleges and established research institutesLack of continuity of research in successive batches of postgraduate (PG) students, leading to wastage of previous research propecia side effects percentage and resourcesDifficulty in the application of basic biomedical research into pragmatic intervention solutions due to lack of interdisciplinary technological support/collaboration between basic scientists, clinicians, and technological experts.Majority of the biomedical research in India are conducted in medical institutions.

The majority of these are done as thesis submission for fulfillment of the requirement of PG degree. From 2015 onward, publication of papers had been propecia side effects percentage made an obligatory requirement for promotion of faculty to higher posts. Although it offered a unique opportunity for training of residents and stimulus for research, it failed to translate into production of quality research work as thesis was limited by time and it had to be done with other clinical and academic duties.While the top four medical colleges, namely AIIMS, New Delhi. PGIMER, Chandigarh. CMC, Vellore propecia side effects percentage.

And SGIMS, Lucknow are among the top ten medical institutions in terms of publication in peer-reviewed journals, around 332 (57.3%) medical colleges have no research paper published in a decade between 2004 and 2014.[2]The research in psychiatry is realistically dominated by major research institutes which are doing commendable work, but there is a substantial lack of contemporary research originating from other centers. Dr. Chittaranjan Andrade (NIMHANS, Bengaluru) and Dr. K Jacob (CMC, Vellore) recently figured in the list of top 2% psychiatry researchers in the world from India in psychiatry.[3] Most of the research conducted in the field of psychiatry are limited to caregivers' burden, pathways of care, and other topics which can be done in limited resources available to psychiatry departments. While all these areas of work are important in providing proper care and treatment, there is overabundance of research in these areas.The Government of India is aggressively looking forward to enhancing the quality of research and is embarking on an ambitious project of purchasing all major journals and providing free access to universities across the country.

The India Genome Project started in January, 2020, is a good example of collaboration. While all these actions are laudable, a lot more needs to be done. Following are some measures which will reduce the gap:Research proposals at the level of protocol can be guided and mentored by institutes. Academic committees of different zones and journals can help in this endeavorBreaking the cubicles by establishing a collaboration between medical colleges and various institutes. While there is a lack of resources available in individual departments, there are universities and institutes with excellent infrastructure.

They are not aware of the requirements of the field of psychiatry and research questions. Creation of an alliance will enhance the quality of research work. Some of such institutes include Centre for Neuroscience, Indian Institute of Science, Bengaluru. CSIR-Institute of Genomics and Integrative Biology, New Delhi. And National Institute of Biomedical Genomics, KalyaniInitiation and establishment of interactive and stable relationships between basic scientists and clinical and technological experts will enhance the quality of research work and will lead to translation of basic biomedical research into real-time applications.

For example, work on artificial intelligence for mental health. Development of Apps by IITs. Genome India Project by the Government of India, genomic institutes, and social science and economic institutes working in the field of various aspects of mental healthUtilization of underutilized, well-equipped biotechnological labs of nonmedical colleges for furthering biomedical researchMedical colleges should collaborate with various universities which have labs providing testing facilities such as spectroscopy, fluoroscopy, gamma camera, scintigraphy, positron emission tomography, single photon emission computed tomography, and photoacoustic imagingCreating an interactive, interdepartmental, intradepartmental, and interinstitutional partnershipBy developing a healthy and ethical partnership with industries for research and development of new drugs and interventions.Walking the talk – the psychiatric fraternity needs to be proactive and rather than lamenting about the lack of resource, we should rise to the occasion and come out with innovative and original research proposals. With the implementation of collaborative approach, we can not only enhance and improve the quality of our research but to an extent also mitigate the effects of resource crunch and come up as a leader in the field of biomedical research. References 1.2.Nagoba B, Davane M.

Current status of medical research in India. Where are we?. Walawalkar Int Med J 2017;4:66-71. 3.Ioannidis JP, Boyack KW, Baas J. Updated science-wide author databases of standardized citation indicators.

PLoS Biol 2020;18:e3000918. Correspondence Address:Dr. Om Prakash SinghAA 304, Ashabari Apartments, O/31, Baishnabghata, Patuli Township, Kolkata - 700 094, West Bengal IndiaSource of Support. None, Conflict of Interest. NoneDOI.

10.4103/indianjpsychiatry.indianjpsychiatry_1362_2Abstract Background. The burden of mental illness among the scheduled tribe (ST) population in India is not known clearly.Aim. The aim was to identify and appraise mental health research studies on ST population in India and collate such data to inform future research.Materials and Methods. Studies published between January 1980 and December 2018 on STs by following exclusion and inclusion criteria were selected for analysis. PubMed, PsychINFO, Embase, Sociofile, Cinhal, and Google Scholar were systematically searched to identify relevant studies.

Quality of the included studies was assessed using an appraisal tool to assess the quality of cross-sectional studies and Critical Appraisal Checklist developed by Critical Appraisal Skills Programme. Studies were summarized and reported descriptively.Results. Thirty-two relevant studies were found and included in the review. Studies were categorized into the following three thematic areas. Alcohol and substance use disorders, common mental disorders and sociocultural aspects, and access to mental health-care services.

Sociocultural factors play a major role in understanding and determining mental disorders.Conclusion. This study is the first of its kind to review research on mental health among the STs. Mental health research conducted among STs in India is limited and is mostly of low-to-moderate quality. Determinants of poor mental health and interventions for addressing them need to be studied on an urgent basis.Keywords. India, mental health, scheduled tribesHow to cite this article:Devarapalli S V, Kallakuri S, Salam A, Maulik PK.

Mental health research on scheduled tribes in India. Indian J Psychiatry 2020;62:617-30 Introduction Mental health is a highly neglected area particularly in low and middle-income countries (LMIC). Data from community-based studies showed that about 10% of people suffer from common mental disorders (CMDs) such as depression, anxiety, and somatic complaints.[1] A systematic review of epidemiological studies between 1960 and 2009 in India reported that about 20% of the adult population in the community are affected by psychiatric disorders in the community, ranging from 9.5 to 103/1000 population, with differences in case definitions, and methods of data collection, accounting for most of the variation in estimates.[2]The scheduled tribes (ST) population is a marginalized community and live in relative social isolation with poorer health indices compared to similar nontribal populations.[3] There are an estimated 90 million STs or Adivasis in India.[4] They constitute 8.6% of the total Indian population. The distribution varies across the states and union territories of India, with the highest percentage in Lakshadweep (94.8%) followed by Mizoram (94.4%). In northeastern states, they constitute 65% or more of the total population.[5] The ST communities are identified as culturally or ethnographically unique by the Indian Constitution.

They are populations with poorer health indicators and fewer health-care facilities compared to non-ST rural populations, even when within the same state, and often live in demarcated geographical areas known as ST areas.[4]As per the National Family Health Survey, 2015–2016, the health indicators such as infant mortality rate (IMR) is 44.4, under five mortality rate (U5MR) is 57.2, and anemia in women is 59.8 for STs – one of the most disadvantaged socioeconomic groups in India, which are worse compared to other populations where IMR is 40.7, U5MR is 49.7, and anemia in women among others is 53.0 in the same areas.[6] Little research is available on the health of ST population. Tribal mental health is an ignored and neglected area in the field of health-care services. Further, little data are available about the burden of mental disorders among the tribal communities. Health research on tribal populations is poor, globally.[7] Irrespective of the data available, it is clear that they have worse health indicators and less access to health facilities.[8] Even less is known about the burden of mental disorders in ST population. It is also found that the traditional livelihood system of the STs came into conflict with the forces of modernization, resulting not only in the loss of customary rights over the livelihood resources but also in subordination and further, developing low self-esteem, causing great psychological stress.[4] This community has poor health infrastructure and even less mental health resources, and the situation is worse when compared to other communities living in similar areas.[9],[10]Only 15%–25% of those affected with mental disorders in LMICs receive any treatment for their mental illness,[11] resulting in a large “treatment gap.”[12] Treatment gaps are more in rural populations,[13] especially in ST communities in India, which have particularly poor infrastructure and resources for health-care delivery in general, and almost no capacity for providing mental health care.[14]The aim of this systematic review was to explore the extent and nature of mental health research on ST population in India and to identify gaps and inform future research.

Materials and Methods Search strategyWe searched major databases (PubMed, PsychINFO, Embase, Sociofile, Cinhal, and Google Scholar) and made hand searches from January 1980 to December 2018 to identify relevant literature. Hand search refers to searching through medical journals which are not indexed in the major electronic databases such as Embase, for instance, searching for Indian journals in IndMed database as most of these journals are not available in major databases. Physical search refers to searching the journals that were not available online or were not available online during the study years. We used relevant Medical Subject Heading and key terms in our search strategy, as follows. €œMental health,” “Mental disorders,” “Mental illness,” “Psychiatry,” “Scheduled Tribe” OR “Tribe” OR “Tribal Population” OR “Indigenous population,” “India,” “Psych*” (Psychiatric, psychological, psychosis).Inclusion criteriaStudies published between January 1980 and December 2018 were included.

Studies on mental disorders were included only when they focused on ST population. Both qualitative and quantitative studies on mental disorders of ST population only were included in the analysis.Exclusion criteriaStudies without any primary data and which are merely overviews and commentaries and those not focused on ST population were excluded from the analysis.Data management and analysisTwo researchers (SD and SK) initially screened the title and abstract of each record to identify relevant papers and subsequently screened full text of those relevant papers. Any disagreements between the researchers were resolved by discussion or by consulting with an adjudicator (PKM). From each study, data were extracted on objectives, study design, study population, study duration, interventions (if applicable), outcomes, and results. Quality of the included studies was assessed, independently by three researchers (SD, SK, and AS), using Critical Appraisal Checklist developed by Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP).[15] After a thorough qualitative assessment, all quantitative data were generated and tabulated.

A narrative description of the studies is provided in [Table 1] using some broad categories. Results Search resultsOur search retrieved 2306 records (which included hand-searched articles), of which after removing duplicates, title and abstracts of 2278 records were screened. Of these, 178 studies were deemed as potentially relevant and were reviewed in detail. Finally, we excluded 146 irrelevant studies and 32 studies were included in the review [Figure 1].Quality of the included studiesSummary of quality assessment of the included studies is reported in [Table 2]. Overall, nine studies were of poor quality, twenty were of moderate quality, and three studies were of high quality.

The CASP shows that out of the 32 studies, the sample size of 21 studies was not representative, sample size of 7 studies was not justified, risk factors were not identified in 28 studies, methods used were not sufficiently described to repeat them in 24 studies, and nonresponse reasons were not addressed in 24 studies. The most common reasons for studies to be of poor-quality included sample size not justified. Sample is not representative. Nonresponse not addressed. Risk factors not measured correctly.

And methods used were not sufficiently described to repeat them. Studies under the moderate quality did not have a representative sample. Non-responders categories was not addressed. Risk factors were not measured correctly. And methods used were not sufficiently described to allow the study to be replicated by other researchers.The included studies covered three broad categories.

Alcohol and substance use disorders, CMD (depression, anxiety, stress, and suicide risk), socio-cultural aspects, and access to mental health services.Alcohol and substance use disordersFive studies reviewed the consumption of alcohol and opioid. In an ethnographic study conducted in three western districts in Rajasthan, 200 opium users were interviewed. Opium consumption was common among both younger and older males during nonharvest seasons. The common causes for using opium were relief of anxiety related to crop failure due to drought, stress, to get a high, be part of peers, and for increased sexual performance.[16]In a study conducted in Arunachal Pradesh involving a population of more than 5000 individuals, alcohol use was present in 30% and opium use in about 5% adults.[17] Contrary to that study, in Rajasthan, the prevalence of opium use was more in women and socioeconomic factors such as occupation, education, and marital status were associated with opium use.[16] The prevalence of opium use increased with age in both sexes, decreased with increasing education level, and increased with employment. It was observed that wages were used to buy opium.

In the entire region of Chamlang district of Arunachal Pradesh, female substance users were almost half of the males among ST population.[17] Types of substance used were tobacco, alcohol, and opium. Among tobacco users, oral tobacco use was higher than smoking. The prevalence of tobacco use was higher among males, but the prevalence of alcohol use was higher in females, probably due to increased access to homemade rice brew generally prepared by women. This study is unique in terms of finding a strong association with religion and culture with substance use.[18]Alcohol consumption among Paniyas of Wayanad district in Kerala is perceived as a male activity, with many younger people consuming it than earlier. A study concluded that alcohol consumption among them was less of a “choice” than a result of their conditions operating through different mechanisms.

In the past, drinking was traditionally common among elderly males, however the consumption pattern has changed as a significant number of younger men are now drinking. Drinking was clustered within families as fathers and sons drank together. Alcohol is easily accessible as government itself provides opportunities. Some employers would provide alcohol as an incentive to attract Paniya men to work for them.[19]In a study from Jharkhand, several ST community members cited reasons associated with social enhancement and coping with distressing emotions rather than individual enhancement, as a reason for consuming alcohol. Societal acceptance of drinking alcohol and peer pressure, as well as high emotional problems, appeared to be the major etiology leading to higher prevalence of substance dependence in tribal communities.[20] Another study found high life time alcohol use prevalence, and the reasons mentioned were increased poverty, illiteracy, increased stress, and peer pressure.[21] A household survey from Chamlang district of Arunachal Pradesh revealed that there was a strong association between opium use and age, occupation, marital status, religion, and ethnicity among both the sexes of STs, particularly among Singhpho and Khamti.[15] The average age of onset of tobacco use was found to be 16.4 years for smoked and 17.5 years for smokeless forms in one study.[22]Common mental disorders and socio-cultural aspectsSuicide was more common among Idu Mishmi in Roing and Anini districts of Arunachal Pradesh state (14.2%) compared to the urban population in general (0.4%–4.2%).

Suicides were associated with depression, anxiety, alcoholism, and eating disorders. Of all the factors, depression was significantly high in people who attempted suicide.[24] About 5% out of 5007 people from thirty villages comprising ST suffered from CMDs in a study from West Godavari district in rural Andhra Pradesh. CMDs were defined as moderate/severe depression and/or anxiety, stress, and increased suicidal risk. Women had a higher prevalence of depression, but this may be due to the cultural norms, as men are less likely to express symptoms of depression or anxiety, which leads to underreporting. Marital status, education, and age were prominently associated with CMD.[14] In another study, gender, illiteracy, infant mortality in the household, having <3 adults living in the household, large family size with >four children, morbidity, and having two or more life events in the last year were associated with increased prevalence of CMD.[24] Urban and rural ST from the same community of Bhutias of Sikkim were examined, and it was found that the urban population experienced higher perceived stress compared to their rural counterparts.[25] Age, current use of alcohol, poor educational status, marital status, social groups, and comorbidities were the main determinants of tobacco use and nicotine dependence in a study from the Andaman and Nicobar Islands.[22] A study conducted among adolescents in the schools of rural areas of Ranchi district in Jharkhand revealed that about 5% children from the ST communities had emotional symptoms, 9.6% children had conduct problems, 4.2% had hyperactivity, and 1.4% had significant peer problems.[27] A study conducted among the female school teachers in Jharkhand examined the effects of stress, marital status, and ethnicity upon the mental health of school teachers.

The study found that among the three factors namely stress, marital status, and ethnicity, ethnicity was found to affect mental health of the school teachers most. It found a positive relationship between mental health and socioeconomic status, with an inverse relationship showing that as income increased, the prevalence of depression decreased.[28] A study among Ao-Nagas in Nagaland found that 74.6% of the population attributed mental health problems to psycho-social factors and a considerable proportion chose a psychiatrist or psychologist to overcome the problem. However, 15.4% attributed mental disorders to evil spirits. About 47% preferred to seek treatment with a psychiatrist and 25% preferred prayers. Nearly 10.6% wanted to seek the help of both the psychiatrist and prayer group and 4.4% preferred traditional healers.[28],[29] The prevalence of Down syndrome among the ST in Chikhalia in Barwani district of Madhya Pradesh was higher than that reported in overall India.

Three-fourth of the children were the first-born child. None of the parents of children with Down syndrome had consanguineous marriage or a history of Down syndrome, intellectual disability, or any other neurological disorder such as cerebral palsy and epilepsy in preceding generations. It is known that tribal population is highly impoverished and disadvantaged in several ways and suffer proportionately higher burden of nutritional and genetic disorders, which are potential factors for Down syndrome.[30]Access to mental health-care servicesIn a study in Ranchi district of Jharkhand, it was found that most people consulted faith healers rather than qualified medical practitioners. There are few mental health services in the regions.[31] Among ST population, there was less reliance and belief in modern medicine, and it was also not easily accessible, thus the health-care systems must be more holistic and take care of cultural and local health practices.[32]The Systematic Medical Appraisal, Referral and Treatment (SMART) Mental Health project was implemented in thirty ST villages in West Godavari District of Andhra Pradesh. The key objectives were to use task sharing, training of primary health workers, implementing evidence-based clinical decision support tools on a mobile platform, and providing mental health services to rural population.

The study included 238 adults suffering from CMD. During the intervention period, 12.6% visited the primary health-care doctors compared to only 0.8% who had sought any care for their mental disorders prior to the intervention. The study also found a significant reduction in the depression and anxiety scores at the end of intervention and improvements in stigma perceptions related to mental health.[14] A study in Gudalur and Pandalur Taluks of Nilgiri district from Tamil Nadu used low cost task shifting by providing community education and identifying and referring individuals with psychiatric problems as effective strategies for treating mental disorders in ST communities. Through the program, the health workers established a network within the village, which in turn helped the patients to interact with them freely. Consenting patients volunteered at the educational sessions to discuss their experience about the effectiveness of their treatment.

Community awareness programs altered knowledge and attitudes toward mental illness in the community.[33] A study in Nilgiri district, Tamil Nadu, found that the community had been taking responsibility of the patients with the system by providing treatment closer to home without people having to travel long distances to access care. Expenses were reduced by subsidizing the costs of medicine and ensuring free hospital admissions and referrals to the people.[34] A study on the impact of gender, socioeconomic status, and age on mental health of female factory workers in Jharkhand found that the ST women were more likely to face stress and hardship in life due to diverse economic and household responsibilities, which, in turn, severely affected their mental health.[35] Prevalence of mental health morbidity in a study from the Sunderbans delta found a positive relation with psycho-social stressors and poor quality of life. The health system in that remote area was largely managed by “quack doctors” and faith healers. Poverty, illiteracy, and detachment from the larger community helped reinforce superstitious beliefs and made them seek both mental and physical health care from faith healers.[36] In a study among students, it was found that children had difficulties in adjusting to both ethnic and mainstream culture.[27] Low family income, inadequate housing, poor sanitation, and unhealthy and unhygienic living conditions were some environmental factors contributing to poor physical and mental growth of children. It was observed that children who did not have such risk factors maintained more intimate relations with the family members.

Children belonging to the disadvantaged environment expressed their verbal, emotional need, blame, and harm avoidances more freely than their counterparts belonging to less disadvantaged backgrounds. Although disadvantaged children had poor interfamilial interaction, they had better relations with the members outside family, such as peers, friends, and neighbors.[37] Another study in Jharkhand found that epilepsy was higher among ST patients compared to non-ST patients.[31] Most patients among the ST are irregular and dropout rates are higher among them than the non-ST patients. Urbanization per se exerted no adverse influence on the mental health of a tribal community, provided it allowed preservation of ethnic and cultural practices. Women in the ST communities were less vulnerable to mental illness than men. This might be a reflection of their increased responsibilities and enhanced gender roles that are characteristic of women in many ST communities.[38] Data obtained using culturally relevant scales revealed that relocated Sahariya suffer a lot of mental health problems, which are partially explained by livelihood and poverty-related factors.

The loss of homes and displacement compromise mental health, especially the positive emotional well-being related to happiness, life satisfaction, optimism for future, and spiritual contentment. These are often not overcome even with good relocation programs focused on material compensation and livelihood re-establishment.[39] Discussion This systematic review is to our knowledge the first on mental health of ST population in India. Few studies on the mental health of ST were available. All attempts including hand searching were made to recover both published peer-reviewed papers and reports available on the website. Though we searched gray literature, it may be possible that it does not capture all articles.

Given the heterogeneity of the papers, it was not possible to do a meta-analysis, so a narrative review was done.The quality of the studies was assessed by CASP. The assessment shows that the research conducted on mental health of STs needs to be carried out more effectively. The above mentioned gaps need to be filled in future research by considering the resources effectively while conducting the studies. Mental and substance use disorders contribute majorly to the health disparities. To address this, one needs to deliver evidence-based treatments, but it is important to understand how far these interventions for the indigenous populations can incorporate cultural practices, which are essential for the development of mental health services.[30] Evidence has shown a disproportionate burden of suicide among indigenous populations in national and regional studies, and a global and systematic investigation of this topic has not been undertaken to date.

Previous reviews of suicide epidemiology among indigenous populations have tended to be less comprehensive or not systematic, and have often focused on subpopulations such as youth, high-income countries, or regions such as Oceania or the Arctic.[46] The only studies in our review which provided data on suicide were in Idu Mishmi, an isolated tribal population of North-East India, and tribal communities from Sunderban delta.[24],[37] Some reasons for suicide in these populations could be the poor identification of existing mental disorders, increased alcohol use, extreme poverty leading to increased debt and hopelessness, and lack of stable employment opportunities.[24],[37] The traditional consumption pattern of alcohol has changed due to the reasons associated with social enhancement and coping with distressing emotions rather than individual enhancement.[19],[20]Faith healers play a dominant role in treating mental disorders. There is less awareness about mental health and available mental health services and even if such knowledge is available, access is limited due to remoteness of many of these villages, and often it involves high out-of-pocket expenditure.[35] Practitioners of modern medicine can play a vital role in not only increasing awareness about mental health in the community, but also engaging with faith healers and traditional medicine practitioners to help increase their capacity to identify and manage CMDs that do not need medications and can be managed through simple “talk therapy.” Knowledge on symptoms of severe mental disorders can also help such faith healers and traditional medicine practitioners to refer cases to primary care doctors or mental health professionals.Remote settlements make it difficult for ST communities to seek mental health care. Access needs to be increased by using solutions that use training of primary health workers and nonphysician health workers, task sharing, and technology-enabled clinical decision support tools.[3] The SMART Mental Health project was delivered in the tribal areas of Andhra Pradesh using those principles and was found to be beneficial by all stakeholders.[14]Given the lack of knowledge about mental health problems among these communities, the government and nongovernmental organizations should collect and disseminate data on mental disorders among the ST communities. More research funding needs to be provided and key stakeholders should be involved in creating awareness both in the community and among policy makers to develop more projects for ST communities around mental health. Two recent meetings on tribal mental health – Round Table Meeting on Mental Health of ST Populations organized by the George Institute for Global Health, India, in 2017,[51] and the First National Conference on Tribal Mental Health organized by the Indian Psychiatric Society in Bhubaneswar in 2018 – have identified some key areas of research priority for mental health in ST communities.

A national-level policy on mental health of tribal communities or population is advocated which should be developed in consultation with key stakeholders. The Indian Psychiatric Society can play a role in coordinating research activities with support of the government which can ensure regular monitoring and dissemination of the research impact to the tribal communities. There is a need to understand how mental health symptoms are perceived in different ST communities and investigate the healing practices associated with distress/disaster/death/loss/disease. This could be done in the form of cross-sectional or cohort studies to generate proper evidence which could also include the information on prevalence, mental health morbidity, and any specific patterns associated with a specific disorder. Future research should estimate the prevalence of mental disorders in different age groups and gender, risk factors, and the influence of modernization.

Studies should develop a theoretical model to understand mental disorders and promote positive mental health within ST communities. Studies should also look at different ST communities as cultural differences exist across them, and there are also differences in socioeconomic status which impact on ability to access care.Research has shown that the impact and the benefits are amplified when research is driven by priorities that are identified by indigenous communities and involve their active participation. Their knowledge and perspectives are incorporated in processes and findings. Reporting of findings is meaningful to the communities. And indigenous groups and other key stakeholders are engaged from the outset.[47] Future research in India on ST communities should also adhere to these broad principles to ensure relevant and beneficial research, which have direct impact on the mental health of the ST communities.There is also a need to update literature related to mental health of ST population continuously.

Develop culturally appropriate validated instruments to measure mental morbidity relevant to ST population. And use qualitative research to investigate the perceptions and barriers for help-seeking behavior.[48] Conclusion The current review helps not only to collate the existing literature on the mental health of ST communities but also identify gaps in knowledge and provide some indications about the type of research that should be funded in future.Financial support and sponsorshipNil.Conflicts of interestThere are no conflicts of interest. References 1.Gururaj G, Girish N, Isaac MK. Mental. Neurological and Substance abuse disorders.

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Impact on knowledge and attitudes. Int J Ment Health Syst 2011;5:17. 14.Maulik PK, Kallakuri S, Devarapalli S, Vadlamani VS, Jha V, Patel A. Increasing use of mental health services in remote areas using mobile technology. A pre-post evaluation of the SMART Mental Health project in rural India.

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Retrospective analysis of a survey of tribal communities in Arunachal Pradesh, India. BMC Public Health 2013;13:325. 19.Mohindra KS, Narayana D, Anushreedha SS, Haddad S. Alcohol use and its consequences in South India. Views from a marginalised tribal population.

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Prevalence and dependancy of tobacco use in an indigenous population of Kerala, India. Oral Hygiene and Health 2016;4:1 23.Manimunda SP, Benegal V, Sugunan AP, Jeemon P, Balakrishna N, Thennarusu K, et al. Tobacco use and nicotine dependency in a cross-sectional representative sample of 18,018 individuals in Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India. BMC Public Health 2012;12:515. 24.Singh PK, Singh RK, Biswas A, Rao VR.

High rate of suicide attempt and associated psychological traits in an isolated tribal population of North-East India. J Affect Dis 2013;151:673-8. 25.Sushila J. Perception of Illness and Health Care among Bhils. A Study of Udaipur District in Southern Rajasthan.

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Stress and mental health of tribal and non tribal female school teachers in Jharkhand, India. Int J Sci Res Publicat 2012;2:2250-3153. 29.Longkumer I, Borooah PI. Knowledge about attitudes toward mental disorders among Nagas in North East India. IOSR J Humanities Soc Sci 2013;15:41-7.

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Health care delivery model in epilepsy to reduce treatment gap. WHO study from a rural tribal population of India. Epilepsy Res Elsevier 2009;84:146-52. 32.Prabhakar H, Manoharan R. The Tribal Health Initiative model for healthcare delivery.

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Effect of a participatory intervention with women's groups on birth outcomes and maternal depression in Jharkhand and Orissa, India. A cluster-randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2010;375:1182-92. 36.Aparajita C, Anita KM, Arundhati R, Chetana P. Assessing Social-support network among the socio culturally disadvantaged children in India.

Early Child Develop Care 1996;121:37-47. 37.Chowdhury AN, Mondal R, Brahma A, Biswas MK. Eco-psychiatry and environmental conservation. Study from Sundarban Delta, India. Environ Health Insights 2008;2:61-76.

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39.Ozer S, Acculturation, adaptation, and mental health among Ladakhi College Students a mixed methods study of an indigenous population. J Cross Cultl Psychol 2015;46:435-53. 40.Giri DK, Chaudhary S, Govinda M, Banerjee A, Mahto AK, Chakravorty PK. Utilization of psychiatric services by tribal population of Jharkhand through community outreach programme of RINPAS. Eastern J Psychiatry 2007;10:25-9.

41.Nandi DN, Banerjee G, Chowdhury AN, Banerjee T, Boral GC, Sen B. Urbanization and mental morbidity in certain tribal communities in West Bengal. Indian J Psychiatry 1992;34:334-9. [PUBMED] [Full text] 42.Hackett RJ, Sagdeo D, Creed FH. The physical and social associations of common mental disorder in a tribal population in South India.

Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 2007;42:712-5. 43.Raina SK, Raina S, Chander V, Grover A, Singh S, Bhardwaj A. Development of a cognitive screening instrument for tribal elderly population of Himalayan region in northern India. J Neurosci Rural Pract 2013;4:147-53. [PUBMED] [Full text] 44.Raina SK, Raina S, Chander V, Grover A, Singh S, Bhardwaj A.

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Correspondence Address:S V. Siddhardh Kumar DevarapalliGeorge Institute for Global Health, Plot No. 57, Second Floor, Corporation Bank Building, Nagarjuna Circle, Punjagutta, Hyderabad - 500 082, Telangana IndiaSource of Support. None, Conflict of Interest. NoneDOI.

10.4103/psychiatry.IndianJPsychiatry_136_19 Figures [Figure 1] Tables [Table 1], [Table 2].

How to cite this Get kamagra online article:Singh propecia cost singapore OP. Psychiatry research in India. Closing the propecia cost singapore research gap.

Indian J Psychiatry 2020;62:615-6Research is an important aspect of the growth and development of medical science. Research in India in propecia cost singapore general and medical research in particular is always being criticized for lack of innovation and originality required for the delivery of health services suitable to Indian conditions. Even the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) which is a centrally funded frontier organization for conducting medical research couldn't avert criticism.

It has been criticized heavily for not producing quality research papers which are pioneering, ground breaking, or pragmatic solutions for health issues plaguing India. In the words of a leading daily, The ICMR could not even list one practical application of its hundreds of research papers published in various national and international research journals which helped cure any disease, or diagnose it with better accuracy or in less time, or even one new basic, applied or clinical research or innovation that opened a new frontier of scientific knowledge.[1]This clearly indicates that the health research output of ICMR is not up to the mark and is not commensurate with the magnitude of the disease burden propecia cost singapore in India. According to the 12th Plan Report, the country contributes to a fifth of the world's share of diseases.

The research conducted elsewhere may not be generalized to propecia cost singapore the Indian population owing to differences in biology, health-care systems, health practices, culture, and socioeconomic standards. Questions which are pertinent and specific to the Indian context may not be answered and will remain understudied. One of the vital elements in improving this situation is the need for relevant research base that would equip policymakers to take informed health policy decisions.The Parliamentary Standing Committee on Health and Family Welfare in the 100th report on Demand for Grants (2017–2018) of the Department of Health Research observed that “the biomedical research output needs to be augmented substantially to cater to the health challenges faced by the country.”[1]Among the various reasons, lack of fund, infrastructure, and resources is the prime cause which is glaringly evident from the inadequate budget allocation for biomedical research.

While ICMR has a budget of 232 million dollars per year on health propecia cost singapore research, it is zilch in comparison to the annual budget expenditure of the National Institute of Health, USA, on biomedical research which is 32 billion dollars.The lacuna of quality research is not merely due to lack of funds. There are other important issues which need to be considered and sorted out to end the status quo. Some of the factors which need our immediate attention are:Lack of research training and teachingImproper allocation of research facilitiesLack of information about research work happening globallyLack of promotion, motivation, commitment, and passion in the field of researchClinicians being overburdened with patientsLack of collaboration between medical colleges and established research institutesLack of continuity of research in successive batches of postgraduate (PG) students, leading to wastage of previous research and resourcesDifficulty in the application of basic biomedical research into pragmatic intervention solutions due to lack of interdisciplinary technological support/collaboration between basic scientists, clinicians, and technological experts.Majority of the propecia cost singapore biomedical research in India are conducted in medical institutions.

The majority of these are done as thesis submission for fulfillment of the requirement of PG degree. From 2015 onward, publication of papers had been made an obligatory propecia cost singapore requirement for promotion of faculty to higher posts. Although it offered a unique opportunity for training of residents and stimulus for research, it failed to translate into production of quality research work as thesis was limited by time and it had to be done with other clinical and academic duties.While the top four medical colleges, namely AIIMS, New Delhi.

PGIMER, Chandigarh. CMC, Vellore propecia cost singapore. And SGIMS, Lucknow are among the top ten medical institutions in terms of publication in peer-reviewed journals, around 332 (57.3%) medical colleges have no research paper published in a decade between 2004 and 2014.[2]The research in psychiatry is realistically dominated by major research institutes which are doing commendable work, but there is a substantial lack of contemporary research originating from other centers.

Dr. Chittaranjan Andrade (NIMHANS, Bengaluru) and Dr. K Jacob (CMC, Vellore) recently figured in the list of top 2% psychiatry researchers in the world from India in psychiatry.[3] Most of the research conducted in the field of psychiatry are limited to caregivers' burden, pathways of care, and other topics which can be done in limited resources available to psychiatry departments.

While all these areas of work are important in providing proper care and treatment, there is overabundance of research in these areas.The Government of India is aggressively looking forward to enhancing the quality of research and is embarking on an ambitious project of purchasing all major journals and providing free access to universities across the country. The India Genome Project started in January, 2020, is a good example of collaboration. While all these actions are laudable, a lot more needs to be done.

Following are some measures which will reduce the gap:Research proposals at the level of protocol can be guided and mentored by institutes. Academic committees of different zones and journals can help in this endeavorBreaking the cubicles by establishing a collaboration between medical colleges and various institutes. While there is a lack of resources available in individual departments, there are universities and institutes with excellent infrastructure.

They are not aware of the requirements of the field of psychiatry and research questions. Creation of an alliance will enhance the quality of research work. Some of such institutes include Centre for Neuroscience, Indian Institute of Science, Bengaluru.

CSIR-Institute of Genomics and Integrative Biology, New Delhi. And National Institute of Biomedical Genomics, KalyaniInitiation and establishment of interactive and stable relationships between basic scientists and clinical and technological experts will enhance the quality of research work and will lead to translation of basic biomedical research into real-time applications. For example, work on artificial intelligence for mental health.

Development of Apps by IITs. Genome India Project by the Government of India, genomic institutes, and social science and economic institutes working in the field of various aspects of mental healthUtilization of underutilized, well-equipped biotechnological labs of nonmedical colleges for furthering biomedical researchMedical colleges should collaborate with various universities which have labs providing testing facilities such as spectroscopy, fluoroscopy, gamma camera, scintigraphy, positron emission tomography, single photon emission computed tomography, and photoacoustic imagingCreating an interactive, interdepartmental, intradepartmental, and interinstitutional partnershipBy developing a healthy and ethical partnership with industries for research and development of new drugs and interventions.Walking the talk – the psychiatric fraternity needs to be proactive and rather than lamenting about the lack of resource, we should rise to the occasion and come out with innovative and original research proposals. With the implementation of collaborative approach, we can not only enhance and improve the quality of our research but to an extent also mitigate the effects of resource crunch and come up as a leader in the field of biomedical research.

References 1.2.Nagoba B, Davane M. Current status of medical research in India. Where are we?.

Walawalkar Int Med J 2017;4:66-71. 3.Ioannidis JP, Boyack KW, Baas J. Updated science-wide author databases of standardized citation indicators.

PLoS Biol 2020;18:e3000918. Correspondence Address:Dr. Om Prakash SinghAA 304, Ashabari Apartments, O/31, Baishnabghata, Patuli Township, Kolkata - 700 094, West Bengal IndiaSource of Support.

None, Conflict of Interest. NoneDOI. 10.4103/indianjpsychiatry.indianjpsychiatry_1362_2Abstract Background.

The burden of mental illness among the scheduled tribe (ST) population in India is not known clearly.Aim. The aim was to identify and appraise mental health research studies on ST population in India and collate such data to inform future research.Materials and Methods. Studies published between January 1980 and December 2018 on STs by following exclusion and inclusion criteria were selected for analysis.

PubMed, PsychINFO, Embase, Sociofile, Cinhal, and Google Scholar were systematically searched to identify relevant studies. Quality of the included studies was assessed using an appraisal tool to assess the quality of cross-sectional studies and Critical Appraisal Checklist developed by Critical Appraisal Skills Programme. Studies were summarized and reported descriptively.Results.

Thirty-two relevant studies were found and included in the review. Studies were categorized into the following three thematic areas. Alcohol and substance use disorders, common mental disorders and sociocultural aspects, and access to mental health-care services.

Sociocultural factors play a major role in understanding and determining mental disorders.Conclusion. This study is the first of its kind to review research on mental health among the STs. Mental health research conducted among STs in India is limited and is mostly of low-to-moderate quality.

Determinants of poor mental health and interventions for addressing them need to be studied on an urgent basis.Keywords. India, mental health, scheduled tribesHow to cite this article:Devarapalli S V, Kallakuri S, Salam A, Maulik PK. Mental health research on scheduled tribes in India.

Indian J Psychiatry 2020;62:617-30 Introduction Mental health is a highly neglected area particularly in low and middle-income countries (LMIC). Data from community-based studies showed that about 10% of people suffer from common mental disorders (CMDs) such as depression, anxiety, and somatic complaints.[1] A systematic review of epidemiological studies between 1960 and 2009 in India reported that about 20% of the adult population in the community are affected by psychiatric disorders in the community, ranging from 9.5 to 103/1000 population, with differences in case definitions, and methods of data collection, accounting for most of the variation in estimates.[2]The scheduled tribes (ST) population is a marginalized community and live in relative social isolation with poorer health indices compared to similar nontribal populations.[3] There are an estimated 90 million STs or Adivasis in India.[4] They constitute 8.6% of the total Indian population. The distribution varies across the states and union territories of India, with the highest percentage in Lakshadweep (94.8%) followed by Mizoram (94.4%).

In northeastern states, they constitute 65% or more of the total population.[5] The ST communities are identified as culturally or ethnographically unique by the Indian Constitution. They are populations with poorer health indicators and fewer health-care facilities compared to non-ST rural populations, even when within the same state, and often live in demarcated geographical areas known as ST areas.[4]As per the National Family Health Survey, 2015–2016, the health indicators such as infant mortality rate (IMR) is 44.4, under five mortality rate (U5MR) is 57.2, and anemia in women is 59.8 for STs – one of the most disadvantaged socioeconomic groups in India, which are worse compared to other populations where IMR is 40.7, U5MR is 49.7, and anemia in women among others is 53.0 in the same areas.[6] Little research is available on the health of ST population. Tribal mental health is an ignored and neglected area in the field of health-care services.

Further, little data are available about the burden of mental disorders among the tribal communities. Health research on tribal populations is poor, globally.[7] Irrespective of the data available, it is clear that they have worse health indicators and less access to health facilities.[8] Even less is known about the burden of mental disorders in ST population. It is also found that the traditional livelihood system of the STs came into conflict with the forces of modernization, resulting not only in the loss of customary rights over the livelihood resources but also in subordination and further, developing low self-esteem, causing great psychological stress.[4] This community has poor health infrastructure and even less mental health resources, and the situation is worse when compared to other communities living in similar areas.[9],[10]Only 15%–25% of those affected with mental disorders in LMICs receive any treatment for their mental illness,[11] resulting in a large “treatment gap.”[12] Treatment gaps are more in rural populations,[13] especially in ST communities in India, which have particularly poor infrastructure and resources for health-care delivery in general, and almost no capacity for providing mental health care.[14]The aim of this systematic review was to explore the extent and nature of mental health research on ST population in India and to identify gaps and inform future research.

Materials and Methods Search strategyWe searched major databases (PubMed, PsychINFO, Embase, Sociofile, Cinhal, and Google Scholar) and made hand searches from January 1980 to December 2018 to identify relevant literature. Hand search refers to searching through medical journals which are not indexed in the major electronic databases such as Embase, for instance, searching for Indian journals in IndMed database as most of these journals are not available in major databases. Physical search refers to searching the journals that were not available online or were not available online during the study years.

We used relevant Medical Subject Heading and key terms in our search strategy, as follows. €œMental health,” “Mental disorders,” “Mental illness,” “Psychiatry,” “Scheduled Tribe” OR “Tribe” OR “Tribal Population” OR “Indigenous population,” “India,” “Psych*” (Psychiatric, psychological, psychosis).Inclusion criteriaStudies published between January 1980 and December 2018 were included. Studies on mental disorders were included only when they focused on ST population.

Both qualitative and quantitative studies on mental disorders of ST population only were included in the analysis.Exclusion criteriaStudies without any primary data and which are merely overviews and commentaries and those not focused on ST population were excluded from the analysis.Data management and analysisTwo researchers (SD and SK) initially screened the title and abstract of each record to identify relevant papers and subsequently screened full text of those relevant papers. Any disagreements between the researchers were resolved by discussion or by consulting with an adjudicator (PKM). From each study, data were extracted on objectives, study design, study population, study duration, interventions (if applicable), outcomes, and results.

Quality of the included studies was assessed, independently by three researchers (SD, SK, and AS), using Critical Appraisal Checklist developed by Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP).[15] After a thorough qualitative assessment, all quantitative data were generated and tabulated. A narrative description of the studies is provided in [Table 1] using some broad categories. Results Search resultsOur search retrieved 2306 records (which included hand-searched articles), of which after removing duplicates, title and abstracts of 2278 records were screened.

Of these, 178 studies were deemed as potentially relevant and were reviewed in detail. Finally, we excluded 146 irrelevant studies and 32 studies were included in the review [Figure 1].Quality of the included studiesSummary of quality assessment of the included studies is reported in [Table 2]. Overall, nine studies were of poor quality, twenty were of moderate quality, and three studies were of high quality.

The CASP shows that out of the 32 studies, the sample size of 21 studies was not representative, sample size of 7 studies was not justified, risk factors were not identified in 28 studies, methods used were not sufficiently described to repeat them in 24 studies, and nonresponse reasons were not addressed in 24 studies. The most common reasons for studies to be of poor-quality included sample size not justified. Sample is not representative.

Nonresponse not addressed. Risk factors not measured correctly. And methods used were not sufficiently described to repeat them.

Studies under the moderate quality did not have a representative sample. Non-responders categories was not addressed. Risk factors were not measured correctly.

And methods used were not sufficiently described to allow the study to be replicated by other researchers.The included studies covered three broad categories. Alcohol and substance use disorders, CMD (depression, anxiety, stress, and suicide risk), socio-cultural aspects, and access to mental health services.Alcohol and substance use disordersFive studies reviewed the consumption of alcohol and opioid. In an ethnographic study conducted in three western districts in Rajasthan, 200 opium users were interviewed.

Opium consumption was common among both younger and older males during nonharvest seasons. The common causes for using opium were relief of anxiety related to crop failure due to drought, stress, to get a high, be part of peers, and for increased sexual performance.[16]In a study conducted in Arunachal Pradesh involving a population of more than 5000 individuals, alcohol use was present in 30% and opium use in about 5% adults.[17] Contrary to that study, in Rajasthan, the prevalence of opium use was more in women and socioeconomic factors such as occupation, education, and marital status were associated with opium use.[16] The prevalence of opium use increased with age in both sexes, decreased with increasing education level, and increased with employment. It was observed that wages were used to buy opium.

In the entire region of Chamlang district of Arunachal Pradesh, female substance users were almost half of the males among ST population.[17] Types of substance used were tobacco, alcohol, and opium. Among tobacco users, oral tobacco use was higher than smoking. The prevalence of tobacco use was higher among males, but the prevalence of alcohol use was higher in females, probably due to increased access to homemade rice brew generally prepared by women.

This study is unique in terms of finding a strong association with religion and culture with substance use.[18]Alcohol consumption among Paniyas of Wayanad district in Kerala is perceived as a male activity, with many younger people consuming it than earlier. A study concluded that alcohol consumption among them was less of a “choice” than a result of their conditions operating through different mechanisms. In the past, drinking was traditionally common among elderly males, however the consumption pattern has changed as a significant number of younger men are now drinking.

Drinking was clustered within families as fathers and sons drank together. Alcohol is easily accessible as government itself provides opportunities. Some employers would provide alcohol as an incentive to attract Paniya men to work for them.[19]In a study from Jharkhand, several ST community members cited reasons associated with social enhancement and coping with distressing emotions rather than individual enhancement, as a reason for consuming alcohol.

Societal acceptance of drinking alcohol and peer pressure, as well as high emotional problems, appeared to be the major etiology leading to higher prevalence of substance dependence in tribal communities.[20] Another study found high life time alcohol use prevalence, and the reasons mentioned were increased poverty, illiteracy, increased stress, and peer pressure.[21] A household survey from Chamlang district of Arunachal Pradesh revealed that there was a strong association between opium use and age, occupation, marital status, religion, and ethnicity among both the sexes of STs, particularly among Singhpho and Khamti.[15] The average age of onset of tobacco use was found to be 16.4 years for smoked and 17.5 years for smokeless forms in one study.[22]Common mental disorders and socio-cultural aspectsSuicide was more common among Idu Mishmi in Roing and Anini districts of Arunachal Pradesh state (14.2%) compared to the urban population in general (0.4%–4.2%). Suicides were associated with depression, anxiety, alcoholism, and eating disorders. Of all the factors, depression was significantly high in people who attempted suicide.[24] About 5% out of 5007 people from thirty villages comprising ST suffered from CMDs in a study from West Godavari district in rural Andhra Pradesh.

CMDs were defined as moderate/severe depression and/or anxiety, stress, and increased suicidal risk. Women had a higher prevalence of depression, but this may be due to the cultural norms, as men are less likely to express symptoms of depression or anxiety, which leads to underreporting. Marital status, education, and age were prominently associated with CMD.[14] In another study, gender, illiteracy, infant mortality in the household, having <3 adults living in the household, large family size with >four children, morbidity, and having two or more life events in the last year were associated with increased prevalence of CMD.[24] Urban and rural ST from the same community of Bhutias of Sikkim were examined, and it was found that the urban population experienced higher perceived stress compared to their rural counterparts.[25] Age, current use of alcohol, poor educational status, marital status, social groups, and comorbidities were the main determinants of tobacco use and nicotine dependence in a study from the Andaman and Nicobar Islands.[22] A study conducted among adolescents in the schools of rural areas of Ranchi district in Jharkhand revealed that about 5% children from the ST communities had emotional symptoms, 9.6% children had conduct problems, 4.2% had hyperactivity, and 1.4% had significant peer problems.[27] A study conducted among the female school teachers in Jharkhand examined the effects of stress, marital status, and ethnicity upon the mental health of school teachers.

The study found that among the three factors namely stress, marital status, and ethnicity, ethnicity was found to affect mental health of the school teachers most. It found a positive relationship between mental health and socioeconomic status, with an inverse relationship showing that as income increased, the prevalence of depression decreased.[28] A study among Ao-Nagas in Nagaland found that 74.6% of the population attributed mental health problems to psycho-social factors and a considerable proportion chose a psychiatrist or psychologist to overcome the problem. However, 15.4% attributed mental disorders to evil spirits.

About 47% preferred to seek treatment with a psychiatrist and 25% preferred prayers. Nearly 10.6% wanted to seek the help of both the psychiatrist and prayer group and 4.4% preferred traditional healers.[28],[29] The prevalence of Down syndrome among the ST in Chikhalia in Barwani district of Madhya Pradesh was higher than that reported in overall India. Three-fourth of the children were the first-born child.

None of the parents of children with Down syndrome had consanguineous marriage or a history of Down syndrome, intellectual disability, or any other neurological disorder such as cerebral palsy and epilepsy in preceding generations. It is known that tribal population is highly impoverished and disadvantaged in several ways and suffer proportionately higher burden of nutritional and genetic disorders, which are potential factors for Down syndrome.[30]Access to mental health-care servicesIn a study in Ranchi district of Jharkhand, it was found that most people consulted faith healers rather than qualified medical practitioners. There are few mental health services in the regions.[31] Among ST population, there was less reliance and belief in modern medicine, and it was also not easily accessible, thus the health-care systems must be more holistic and take care of cultural and local health practices.[32]The Systematic Medical Appraisal, Referral and Treatment (SMART) Mental Health project was implemented in thirty ST villages in West Godavari District of Andhra Pradesh.

The key objectives were to use task sharing, training of primary health workers, implementing evidence-based clinical decision support tools on a mobile platform, and providing mental health services to rural population. The study included 238 adults suffering from CMD. During the intervention period, 12.6% visited the primary health-care doctors compared to only 0.8% who had sought any care for their mental disorders prior to the intervention.

The study also found a significant reduction in the depression and anxiety scores at the end of intervention and improvements in stigma perceptions related to mental health.[14] A study in Gudalur and Pandalur Taluks of Nilgiri district from Tamil Nadu used low cost task shifting by providing community education and identifying and referring individuals with psychiatric problems as effective strategies for treating mental disorders in ST communities. Through the program, the health workers established a network within the village, which in turn helped the patients to interact with them freely. Consenting patients volunteered at the educational sessions to discuss their experience about the effectiveness of their treatment.

Community awareness programs altered knowledge and attitudes toward mental illness in the community.[33] A study in Nilgiri district, Tamil Nadu, found that the community had been taking responsibility of the patients with the system by providing treatment closer to home without people having to travel long distances to access care. Expenses were reduced by subsidizing the costs of medicine and ensuring free hospital admissions and referrals to the people.[34] A study on the impact of gender, socioeconomic status, and age on mental health of female factory workers in Jharkhand found that the ST women were more likely to face stress and hardship in life due to diverse economic and household responsibilities, which, in turn, severely affected their mental health.[35] Prevalence of mental health morbidity in a study from the Sunderbans delta found a positive relation with psycho-social stressors and poor quality of life. The health system in that remote area was largely managed by “quack doctors” and faith healers.

Poverty, illiteracy, and detachment from the larger community helped reinforce superstitious beliefs and made them seek both mental and physical health care from faith healers.[36] In a study among students, it was found that children had difficulties in adjusting to both ethnic and mainstream culture.[27] Low family income, inadequate housing, poor sanitation, and unhealthy and unhygienic living conditions were some environmental factors contributing to poor physical and mental growth of children. It was observed that children who did not have such risk factors maintained more intimate relations with the family members. Children belonging to the disadvantaged environment expressed their verbal, emotional need, blame, and harm avoidances more freely than their counterparts belonging to less disadvantaged backgrounds.

Although disadvantaged children had poor interfamilial interaction, they had better relations with the members outside family, such as peers, friends, and neighbors.[37] Another study in Jharkhand found that epilepsy was higher among ST patients compared to non-ST patients.[31] Most patients among the ST are irregular and dropout rates are higher among them than the non-ST patients. Urbanization per se exerted no adverse influence on the mental health of a tribal community, provided it allowed preservation of ethnic and cultural practices. Women in the ST communities were less vulnerable to mental illness than men.

This might be a reflection of their increased responsibilities and enhanced gender roles that are characteristic of women in many ST communities.[38] Data obtained using culturally relevant scales revealed that relocated Sahariya suffer a lot of mental health problems, which are partially explained by livelihood and poverty-related factors. The loss of homes and displacement compromise mental health, especially the positive emotional well-being related to happiness, life satisfaction, optimism for future, and spiritual contentment. These are often not overcome even with good relocation programs focused on material compensation and livelihood re-establishment.[39] Discussion This systematic review is to our knowledge the first on mental health of ST population in India.

Few studies on the mental health of ST were available. All attempts including hand searching were made to recover both published peer-reviewed papers and reports available on the website. Though we searched gray literature, it may be possible that it does not capture all articles.

Given the heterogeneity of the papers, it was not possible to do a meta-analysis, so a narrative review was done.The quality of the studies was assessed by CASP. The assessment shows that the research conducted on mental health of STs needs to be carried out more effectively. The above mentioned gaps need to be filled in future research by considering the resources effectively while conducting the studies.

Mental and substance use disorders contribute majorly to the health disparities. To address this, one needs to deliver evidence-based treatments, but it is important to understand how far these interventions for the indigenous populations can incorporate cultural practices, which are essential for the development of mental health services.[30] Evidence has shown a disproportionate burden of suicide among indigenous populations in national and regional studies, and a global and systematic investigation of this topic has not been undertaken to date. Previous reviews of suicide epidemiology among indigenous populations have tended to be less comprehensive or not systematic, and have often focused on subpopulations such as youth, high-income countries, or regions such as Oceania or the Arctic.[46] The only studies in our review which provided data on suicide were in Idu Mishmi, an isolated tribal population of North-East India, and tribal communities from Sunderban delta.[24],[37] Some reasons for suicide in these populations could be the poor identification of existing mental disorders, increased alcohol use, extreme poverty leading to increased debt and hopelessness, and lack of stable employment opportunities.[24],[37] The traditional consumption pattern of alcohol has changed due to the reasons associated with social enhancement and coping with distressing emotions rather than individual enhancement.[19],[20]Faith healers play a dominant role in treating mental disorders.

There is less awareness about mental health and available mental health services and even if such knowledge is available, access is limited due to remoteness of many of these villages, and often it involves high out-of-pocket expenditure.[35] Practitioners of modern medicine can play a vital role in not only increasing awareness about mental health in the community, but also engaging with faith healers and traditional medicine practitioners to help increase their capacity to identify and manage CMDs that do not need medications and can be managed through simple “talk therapy.” Knowledge on symptoms of severe mental disorders can also help such faith healers and traditional medicine practitioners to refer cases to primary care doctors or mental health professionals.Remote settlements make it difficult for ST communities to seek mental health care. Access needs to be increased by using solutions that use training of primary health workers and nonphysician health workers, task sharing, and technology-enabled clinical decision support tools.[3] The SMART Mental Health project was delivered in the tribal areas of Andhra Pradesh using those principles and was found to be beneficial by all stakeholders.[14]Given the lack of knowledge about mental health problems among these communities, the government and nongovernmental organizations should collect and disseminate data on mental disorders among the ST communities. More research funding needs to be provided and key stakeholders should be involved in creating awareness both in the community and among policy makers to develop more projects for ST communities around mental health.

Two recent meetings on tribal mental health – Round Table Meeting on Mental Health of ST Populations organized by the George Institute for Global Health, India, in 2017,[51] and the First National Conference on Tribal Mental Health organized by the Indian Psychiatric Society in Bhubaneswar in 2018 – have identified some key areas of research priority for mental health in ST communities. A national-level policy on mental health of tribal communities or population is advocated which should be developed in consultation with key stakeholders. The Indian Psychiatric Society can play a role in coordinating research activities with support of the government which can ensure regular monitoring and dissemination of the research impact to the tribal communities.

There is a need to understand how mental health symptoms are perceived in different ST communities and investigate the healing practices associated with distress/disaster/death/loss/disease. This could be done in the form of cross-sectional or cohort studies to generate proper evidence which could also include the information on prevalence, mental health morbidity, and any specific patterns associated with a specific disorder. Future research should estimate the prevalence of mental disorders in different age groups and gender, risk factors, and the influence of modernization.

Studies should develop a theoretical model to understand mental disorders and promote positive mental health within ST communities. Studies should also look at different ST communities as cultural differences exist across them, and there are also differences in socioeconomic status which impact on ability to access care.Research has shown that the impact and the benefits are amplified when research is driven by priorities that are identified by indigenous communities and involve their active participation. Their knowledge and perspectives are incorporated in processes and findings.

Reporting of findings is meaningful to the communities. And indigenous groups and other key stakeholders are engaged from the outset.[47] Future research in India on ST communities should also adhere to these broad principles to ensure relevant and beneficial research, which have direct impact on the mental health of the ST communities.There is also a need to update literature related to mental health of ST population continuously. Develop culturally appropriate validated instruments to measure mental morbidity relevant to ST population.

And use qualitative research to investigate the perceptions and barriers for help-seeking behavior.[48] Conclusion The current review helps not only to collate the existing literature on the mental health of ST communities but also identify gaps in knowledge and provide some indications about the type of research that should be funded in future.Financial support and sponsorshipNil.Conflicts of interestThere are no conflicts of interest. References 1.Gururaj G, Girish N, Isaac MK. Mental.

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Correspondence Address:S V. Siddhardh Kumar DevarapalliGeorge Institute for Global Health, Plot No. 57, Second Floor, Corporation Bank Building, Nagarjuna Circle, Punjagutta, Hyderabad - 500 082, Telangana IndiaSource of Support.

None, Conflict of Interest. NoneDOI. 10.4103/psychiatry.IndianJPsychiatry_136_19 Figures [Figure 1] Tables [Table 1], [Table 2].

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